Bi-paratopic and multivalent human VH domains neutralize SARS-CoV-2 by targeting distinct epitopes within the ACE2 binding interface of Spike

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Colton J BrackenJames A Wells

Abstract

Neutralizing agents against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed for treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19. Here, we present a strategy to rapidly identify and assemble synthetic human variable heavy (VH) domain binders with high affinity toward neutralizing epitopes without the need for high-resolution structural information. We constructed a VH-phage library and targeted a known neutralizing site, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding interface of the trimeric SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain (Spike-RBD). Using a masked selection approach, we identified 85 unique VH binders to two non-overlapping epitopes within the ACE2 binding site on Spike-RBD. This enabled us to systematically link these VH domains into multivalent and bi-paratopic formats. These multivalent and bi-paratopic VH constructs showed a marked increase in affinity to Spike (up to 600-fold) and neutralization potency (up to 1400-fold) on pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus when compared to the standalone VH domains. The most potent binder, a trivalent VH, neutralized authentic SARS-CoV-2 with half-minimal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 4.0 nM (180 ng/mL). A cryo-EM structure of the trivalent VH bound to Spike shows each VH domain bound an RBD at th...Continue Reading

Methods Mentioned

BETA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
phage display
ELISA
size exclusion chromatography

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