Bifunctional Enzyme SpoT Is Involved in Biofilm Formation of Helicobacter pylori with Multidrug Resistance by Upregulating Efflux Pump Hp1174 (gluP )

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Xiaoran GeYundong Sun

Abstract

The drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori is gradually becoming a serious problem. Biofilm formation is an important factor that leads to multidrug resistance (MDR) in bacteria. The ability of H. pylori to form biofilms on the gastric mucosa is known. However, there are few studies on the regulatory mechanisms of H. pylori biofilm formation and multidrug resistance. Guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate and guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate [(p)ppGpp] are global regulatory factors and are synthesized in H. pylori by the bifunctional enzyme SpoT. It has been reported that (p)ppGpp is involved in the biofilm formation and multidrug resistance of various bacteria. In this study, we found that SpoT also plays an important role in H. pylori biofilm formation and multidrug resistance. Therefore, it was necessary to carry out some further studies regarding its regulatory mechanism. Considering that efflux pumps are of great importance in the biofilm formation and multidrug resistance of bacteria, we tried to determine whether efflux pumps controlled by SpoT participate in these activities. We found that Hp1174 (glucose/galactose transporter [gluP]), an efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), is highly expressed in b...Continue Reading

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Citations

Feb 13, 2020·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Jianfu Ji, Hong Yang
Jul 29, 2020·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Olga PaciosMaria Tomás
May 19, 2021·Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology·Evariste Tshibangu-Kabamba, Yoshio Yamaoka
Jun 18, 2021·Nucleic Acids Research·Piotr SzczepanowskiAnna Zawilak-Pawlik
Jul 10, 2021·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Xiao-Hua LiHao Chen

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
scanning electron microscopy
PCR
confocal microscopy

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