Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the human mitochondrial amidoxime reducing components hmARC-1 and hmARC-2 suggests the existence of a new molybdenum enzyme family in eukaryotes

The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bettina WahlFlorian Bittner

Abstract

The mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component mARC is a newly discovered molybdenum enzyme that is presumed to form the catalytical part of a three-component enzyme system, consisting of mARC, heme/cytochrome b(5), and NADH/FAD-dependent cytochrome b(5) reductase. mARC proteins share a significant degree of homology to the molybdenum cofactor-binding domain of eukaryotic molybdenum cofactor sulfurase proteins, the latter catalyzing the post-translational activation of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase. The human genome harbors two mARC genes, referred to as hmARC-1/MOSC-1 and hmARC-2/MOSC-2, which are organized in a tandem arrangement on chromosome 1. Recombinant expression of hmARC-1 and hmARC-2 proteins in Escherichia coli reveals that both proteins are monomeric in their active forms, which is in contrast to all other eukaryotic molybdenum enzymes that act as homo- or heterodimers. Both hmARC-1 and hmARC-2 catalyze the N-reduction of a variety of N-hydroxylated substrates such as N-hydroxy-cytosine, albeit with different specificities. Reconstitution of active molybdenum cofactor onto recombinant hmARC-1 and hmARC-2 proteins in the absence of sulfur indicates that mARC proteins do not belong to the xanthine oxida...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

ARC1 protein, human
Mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 2, human
Mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1, human
Genes, Reiterated
Mitochondria
Molybdenum
Oxidase
Spectrometry
Substrate Specificity
Mitochondrial Proteins

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