Biomarkers for Heart Failure Prognosis: Proteins, Genetic Scores and Non-coding RNAs

Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Apurva ShrivastavaChristian Schulte


Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease in which cardiomyocyte injury leads to a cascade of inflammatory and fibrosis pathway activation, thereby causing decrease in cardiac function. As a result, several biomolecules are released which can be identified easily in circulating body fluids. The complex biological processes involved in the development and worsening of HF require an early treatment strategy to stop deterioration of cardiac function. Circulating biomarkers provide not only an ideal platform to detect subclinical changes, their clinical application also offers the opportunity to monitor disease treatment. Many of these biomarkers can be quantified with high sensitivity; allowing their clinical application to be evaluated beyond diagnostic purposes as potential tools for HF prognosis. Though the field of biomarkers is dominated by protein molecules, non-coding RNAs (microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs) are novel and promising biomarker candidates that encompass several ideal characteristics required in the biomarker field. The application of genetic biomarkers as genetic risk scores in disease prognosis, albeit in its infancy, holds promise to improve disease risk estimation. Despite the multitude of bi...Continue Reading


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