Biomarkers of acute renal injury and renal failure

Ronald J TrofA B Johan Groeneveld


Acute renal failure (ARF) is a frequent problem in the intensive care unit and is associated with a high mortality. Early recognition could help clinical management, but current indices lack sufficient predictive value for ARF. Therefore, there might be a need for biomarkers in detecting renal tubular injury and/or dysfunction at an early stage before a decline in glomerular filtration rate is noted by an increased serum creatinine. A MEDLINE/PubMed search was performed, including all articles about biomarkers for ARF. All publication types, human and animal studies, or subsets were searched in English language. An extraction of relevant articles was made for the purpose of this narrative review. These biomarkers include tubular enzymes (alpha- and pi-glutathione S-transferase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Ala-(Leu-Gly)-aminopeptidase, and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase), low-molecular weight urinary proteins (alpha1- and beta2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, adenosine deaminase-binding protein, and cystatin C), Na+/H+ exchanger, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cysteine-rich protein 61, kidney injury molecule 1, urinary interleukins/adhesion molecules, and marker...Continue Reading


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