Bleeding, cramping, and satisfaction among new copper IUD users: A prospective study

PloS One
Jessica N SandersDavid K Turok


We assess change in bleeding, cramping, and IUD satisfaction among new copper (Cu) IUD users during the first six months of use, and evaluate the impact of bleeding and cramping on method satisfaction. We recruited 77 women ages 18-45 for this prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. Eligible women reported regular menses, had no exposure to hormonal contraception in the last three months, and desired a Cu IUD for contraception. We collected data prospectively for 180 days following IUD insertion. Monthly, participants reported bleeding scores using the validated pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC), IUD satisfaction using a five-point Likert scale, and cramping using a six-level ordinal scale. We used multiple imputation to address nonrandom attrition. Structural equation models for count and ordered outcomes were used to model bleeding, cramping, and IUD satisfaction growth curves over the six monthly repeated assessments. Bleeding significantly decreased (approximately 23%) over the course of the study from an estimated PBAC = 195 at one month post-insertion to PBAC = 151 at six months (t = -2.38, p<0.05). Additionally, IUD satisfaction improved over time (t = 2.65, p<0.01), increasing from between "Neutr...Continue Reading


Aug 1, 1990·British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·J M HighamR W Shaw
Mar 1, 1986·British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·L Mäkäräinen, O Ylikorkala
Sep 10, 2004·Psychological Methods·Paras D MehtaBrian R Flay
May 13, 2005·International Family Planning Perspectives·Elizabeth TolleyStirling Cummings
May 29, 2007·Contraception·Catherine d'Arcangues
Apr 4, 2009·Contraception·David HubacherSola Park
Jan 13, 2011·Statistics in Medicine·Ian R WhiteAngela M Wood
Jul 17, 2012·Fertility and Sterility·Lawrence B FinerMegan L Kavanaugh
Dec 27, 2013·Contraception·Kai J BuhlingUNKNOWN INTRA Writing Group
Jul 22, 2014·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Justin T DiedrichJeffrey F Peipert
Sep 16, 2016·American Journal of Public Health·Jenny A HigginsKristin M Ryder
Nov 25, 2016·Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences·Ali EkizGokhan Yildirim
Jan 11, 2017·Contraception·Christine DehlendorfJody Steinauer

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Jun 7, 2020·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Kathryn PeeblesUNKNOWN , MTN-020/ASPIRE study team
Dec 9, 2020·Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health·M Antonia BiggsLori Freedman
Apr 16, 2021·The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care : the Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception·Mohammed K AliAhmed M A Sobh

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Methods Mentioned


Clinical Trials Mentioned


Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Epigenetics Insights from Twin Studies

Find the latest research on epigenetics and twin studies here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.