The art and science of the use of deposition markers for the estimation of blood flow distributions throughout the body and within organs is reviewed. Development of diffusible tracer techniques started 50 years ago. Twenty years later, radioactive 15 micron microspheres became the standard marker. Early studies on small animals, fetal sheep in 1967 and rats in 1976, provoked much of the technical development. Needs for avoiding the use of radioactivity, for having long lasting labels, and for providing higher spatial resolution, are driving the continuing exploration of newer techniques using colored and fluorescent microspheres and molecular deposition markers. Strengths and weaknesses of the various methods are compared.
The radioactive microsphere method for the assessment of regional myocardial blood flow after coronary artery occlusion. Inaccuracies due to variations in the diameter distribution of the spheres
Measurement of blood flow to the adrenal capsule, cortex and medulla in dogs after hemorrhage by fluorescent microspheres
Liver blood flow measurement in the rat. The electromagnetic versus the microsphere and the clearance methods
Two hemodynamic problems commonly associated with the microsphere technique for measuring regional blood flow in rats
Cardiac output distribution in rats measured by injection of radioactive microspheres via cardiac puncture
Regional distribution of diffusible tracers and carbonized microspheres in the left ventricle of isolated dog hearts
Total and regional myocardial blood flow measurements with 25 micron, 15 micron, 9 micron, and filtered 1-10 micron diameter microspheres and antipyrine in dogs and sheep
The circulation of the fetus in utero. Methods for studying distribution of blood flow, cardiac output and organ blood flow
Total and regional coronary blood flow measured by radioactive microspheres in conscious and anesthetized dogs
Computational quantification of metabolic fluxes from a single isotope snapshot: application to an animal biopsy
Role of neuronal NO synthase in regulating vascular superoxide levels and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation
Hyperemic stress myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance in mice at 3 Tesla: initial experience and validation against microspheres
Permissive hypotension does not reduce regional organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation: animal study with fluorescent microspheres
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound induces angiogenesis and ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia
Renal perfusion: noninvasive measurement with multidetector CT versus fluorescent microspheres in a pig model
Intracardiac echocardiography guided transeptal catheter injection of microspheres for assessment of cerebral microcirculation in experimental models
Gated SPECT imaging to detect changes in myocardial blood flow during progressive coronary occlusion
The use of hydrogen gas clearance for blood flow measurements in single endogenous and transplanted pancreatic islets
The lognormal perfusion model for disruption replenishment measurements of blood flow: in vivo validation
Comparison of transcatheter intraarterial perfusion MR imaging and fluorescent microsphere perfusion measurements during transcatheter arterial embolization of rabbit liver tumors
A modified fluorescent microsphere-based approach for determining resting and hyperemic blood flows in individual murine skeletal muscles
Strain softening behaviour in nonviable rat right-ventricular trabeculae, in the presence and the absence of butanedione monoxime
Paracrine effects of direct intramyocardial implantation of bone marrow derived cells to enhance neovascularization in chronic ischaemic myocardium
Comparison of the quantitative first pass myocardial perfusion MRI with and without prospective slice tracking: comparison between breath-hold and free-breathing condition
Cardiovascular function in term fetal sheep conceived, gestated and studied in the hypobaric hypoxia of the Andean altiplano
Assessment of local changes of cerebral perfusion and blood concentration by near infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound contrast densitometry
Comparison of developmental endothelial locus-1 angiogenic factor with vascular endothelial growth factor in a porcine model of cardiac ischemia
Detection and quantification methods of monocyte homing in coronary vasculature with an imaging cryomicrotome
Inducing Muscle Heat Shock Protein 70 Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Muscular Performance in Aged Mice
Quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance derived myocardial perfusion measurements using advanced techniques: microsphere validation in an explanted pig heart system
Nanoparticle delivered vascular disrupting agents (VDAs): use of TNF-alpha conjugated gold nanoparticles for multimodal cancer therapy
Multiple versus single injections of fluorescent microspheres for the determination of regional organ blood flow in septic sheep
Blood flow measurements in rats using four color microspheres during blockade of different vasopressor systems
Differential alterations in cardiovascular responses during the progression of polymicrobial sepsis in the mouse
Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy sensitivity to nicotinamide-induced blood flow elevation in the murine hindlimb using the fluorescent microsphere technique
A novel rodent model of pregnancy complications associated with genetically determined angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity
Extracorporeal cardiac shock wave therapy markedly ameliorates ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in pigs in vivo
Cyclooxygenase-2 Selectively Controls Renal Blood Flow Through a Novel PPARβ/δ-Dependent Vasodilator Pathway
Extracorporeal cardiac shock wave therapy improves left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in pigs
Measurement of bone blood flow using the hydrogen washout technique-part II: Validation by comparison to microsphere entrapment
Quantification of regional myocardial blood flow in a canine model of stunned and infarcted myocardium: comparison of rubidium-82 positron emission tomography with microspheres
Glucagon-like peptide-2 acutely increases proximal small intestinal blood flow in TPN-fed neonatal piglets
Allometric scaling of wall shear stress from mice to humans: quantification using cine phase-contrast MRI and computational fluid dynamics
The hepatic microcirculation: mechanistic contributions and therapeutic targets in liver injury and repair
The effects of lidocaine and adrenergic agonists on rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle blood flow in vivo
Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of mouse myocardial microvascular endothelium using Cy5.5-lectin conjugate
Prevention of hemolysis-induced organ damage by nutritional activation of the vagal anti-inflammatory reflex*
The history of the microsphere method for measuring blood flows with special reference to myocardial blood flow: a personal memoir
Standardized experimental brain death model for studies of intracranial dynamics, organ preservation, and organ transplantation in the pig
Impaired skeletal muscle performance as a consequence of random functional capillary rarefaction can be restored with overload-dependent angiogenesis
Myocardial perfusion and cardiac dimensions during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-supported circulation in a porcine model of critical post-cardiotomy failure
Analysis of spinal cord blood supply combining vascular corrosion casting and fluorescence microsphere technique: A feasibility study in an aortic surgical large animal model.
Influence of contrast agent dispersion on bolus-based MRI myocardial perfusion measurements: A computational fluid dynamics study
High-resolution imaging reveals a limit in spatial resolution of blood flow measurements by microspheres
Cerebral microcirculation during mild head injury after a contusion and acceleration experimental model in sheep
Ontogeny and Cross-species Comparison of Pathways Involved in Drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion in Neonates (Review): Kidney
Toxicologic Pathology Forum Opinion Paper*: Recommendations for a Tiered Approach to Nonclinical Mechanistic Nephrotoxicity Evaluation
Noninvasive quantification of postocclusive reactive hyperemia in mouse thigh muscle by near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy
The coherence of macrocirculation, microcirculation, and tissue metabolic response during nontraumatic hemorrhagic shock in swine
The effects of normovolemic anemia and blood transfusion on cerebral microcirculation after severe head injury
Cerebral Microcirculation and Histological Mapping After Severe Head Injury: A Contusion and Acceleration Experimental Model
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