Bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia and acute leukemia

Onkologie
B SpeckA Gratwohl

Abstract

Much progress has been made in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) and acute leukemia (AL). In SAA it was shown that hemopoietic chimerism and apparently permanent cures can be achieved in the majority of patients by conditioning with cyclophosphamide followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an HLA-identical sibling. The previous transfusion history is crucial for failure or success: untransfused patients do very well while graft rejection is an enormous problem in most polytransfused ones. We have shown that most patients without HLA-identical sibling donors can be adequately helped as well. After conditioning with ALG followed by transfusion of haploidentical marrow and low dose androgens there is partial to complete autologous hemopoietic reconstitution in virtually all patients. This points to the fact that most of these patients have pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells that are intact, but apparently unable to differentiate to mature cells, because they are inhibited by autoimmune mechanisms. The results of BMT in patients with endstage leukemia are modest. New pilotstudies with early marrow grafts, i.e. for ANLL in first remission and for ALL in second remission indicate that w...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Acute Disease
Teens
Hypoplastic Anemia
Lymphocyte Immune Globulin, Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (Equine)
Marrow
Graft Vs Host Reaction
HLA Antigens
Leukemia
Lymphoid Leukemia
Tissue Donors

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