Bradykinesia akinesia inco-ordination test (BRAIN TEST): an objective computerised assessment of upper limb motor function

Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Gavin GiovannoniA J Lees


A simple and rapid computerised keyboard test, based on the alternating finger tapping test, has been developed to quantify upper limb motor function. The test generates several variables: (1) kinesia score: the number of keystrokes in 60 seconds; (2) akinesia time: cumulative time that keys are depressed; (3) dysmetria score: a weighted index calculated using the number of incorrectly hit keys corrected for speed; (4) incoordination score: a measure of rhythmicity which corresponds to the variance of the time interval between keystrokes. The BRAIN TEST(Copyright ) was assessed on 35 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 12 patients with cerebellar dysfunction, and 27 normal control subjects. The mean kinesia scores of patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar dysfunction were significantly slower than normal controls (Parkinson's disease=107 (SD 28) keys/min v cerebellar dysfunction=86+/- (SD 28) v normal controls=182 (SD 26), p<0.001) and correlated with the UPDRS (r =-0.69, p<0.001). The akinesia time is very insensitive and was only abnormal in patients with severe parkinsonism. The median dysmetria (cerebellar dysfunction=13.8 v Parkinson's disease=6.1 v normal controls=4.2, p=0.002) and inco-ordination score...Continue Reading


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