May 4, 2020

Brain irradiation leads to persistent neuroinflammation and long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in a region-specific manner

Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Julie ConstanzoPhilippe Sarret

Abstract

Long-term cognitive deficits are observed after treatment of brain tumors or metastases by radiotherapy. Treatment optimization thus requires a better understanding of the effects of radiotherapy on specific brain regions, according to their sensitivity and interconnectivity. In the present study, behavioral tests supported by immunohistology and magnetic resonance imaging provided a consistent picture of the persistent neurocognitive decline and neuroinflammation after the onset of irradiation-induced necrosis in the right primary somatosensory cortex of Fischer rats. Necrosis surrounded by neovascularization was first detected 54 days after irradiation and then spread to 110 days in the primary motor cortex, primary somatosensory region, striatum and right ventricle, resulting in fiber bundle disruption and demyelination in the corpus callosum of the right hemisphere. These structural damages translated into selective behavioral changes including spatial memory loss, disinhibition of anxiety-like behaviors, hyperactivity and pain hypersensitivity, but no significant alteration in motor coordination and grip strength abilities. Concomitantly, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes, accompanied by infiltration of leukocyte...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Demyelination
Right Ventricular Structure
Adaptation
Rats, Inbred F344
Nerve Bundle
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
Corpus Striatum Structure
Brain
Infiltration
Staining Method

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