To function as an intact barrier, epithelia must maintain constant cell numbers despite high rates of turnover. If the rate of death exceeds proliferation, epithelial barrier function could become compromised; if it lags behind proliferation, cells could amass into tumors. Although the balance between cell death and division is critical for preventing pathology, most studies focus on each process in isolation. Loss of contact inhibition is a hallmark of cancer cells and has suggested that cell contacts are important for linking rates of cell division and death. However, epithelial cells continuously divide and die while maintaining contacts with each other, so other factors must control this balance. Recent studies have found that cell-crowding forces from cell proliferation can drive cells to die by extrusion from the epithelium. Factors that alter this response to cell crowding may lead to barrier function diseases or promote hyperplasia and cancer.
hippo encodes a Ste-20 family protein kinase that restricts cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in conjunction with salvador and warts
The tumour-suppressor genes NF2/Merlin and Expanded act through Hippo signalling to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis
Changes in expression and distribution of claudin 2, 5 and 8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in active Crohn's disease
Inactivation of YAP oncoprotein by the Hippo pathway is involved in cell contact inhibition and tissue growth control
Interaction with surrounding normal epithelial cells influences signalling pathways and behaviour of Src-transformed cells
The Merlin/NF2 tumor suppressor functions through the YAP oncoprotein to regulate tissue homeostasis in mammals
Gab2 regulates cytoskeletal organization and migration of mammary epithelial cells by modulating RhoA activation
mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate EMT, motility, and metastasis of colorectal cancer via RhoA and Rac1 signaling pathways
Integrin adhesion drives the emergent polarization of active cytoskeletal stresses to pattern cell delamination
Actomyosin-mediated cellular tension drives increased tissue stiffness and β-catenin activation to induce epidermal hyperplasia and tumor growth
Spatial, temporal and molecular hierarchies in the link between death, delamination and dorsal closure
Patterning the cone mosaic array in zebrafish retina requires specification of ultraviolet-sensitive cones
Mitochondrial ROS regulates cytoskeletal and mitochondrial remodeling to tune cell and tissue dynamics in a model for wound healing
An RNAi screen reveals intestinal regulators of branching morphogenesis, differentiation, and stem cell proliferation in planarians
Neisseria gonorrhoeae infects the human endocervix by activating non-muscle myosin II-mediated epithelial exfoliation
Cortactin deficiency causes increased RhoA/ROCK1-dependent actomyosin contractility, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and disproportionately severe DSS-induced colitis
PIEZO1 functions as a potential oncogene by promoting cell proliferation and migration in gastric carcinogenesis
Adhesion forces and cortical tension couple cell proliferation and differentiation to drive epidermal stratification
Quantitative analysis of mechanical force required for cell extrusion in zebrafish embryonic epithelia
Long-term live imaging of the Drosophila adult midgut reveals real-time dynamics of division, differentiation and loss
Alix-mediated assembly of the actomyosin-tight junction polarity complex preserves epithelial polarity and epithelial barrier
DUSP10 Is a Regulator of YAP1 Activity Promoting Cell Proliferation and Colorectal Cancer Progression
The Neurosphere Simulator: An educational online tool for modeling neural stem cell behavior and tissue growth.
Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis
Apoptosis in Cancer
Apoptosis is an important mechanism in cancer. By evading apoptosis, tumors can continue to grow without regulation and metastasize systemically. Many therapies are evaluating the use of pro-apoptotic activation to eliminate cancer growth. Here is the latest research on apoptosis in cancer.
Calcium & Bioenergetics
Bioenergetic processes, including cellular respiration and photosynthesis, concern the transformation of energy by cells. Here is the latest research on the role of calcium in bioenergetics.