The early auditory pathway processes information at high rates and with utmost temporal fidelity. Consequently, the synapses in the auditory pathway are highly specialized to meet the extraordinary requirements on signal transmission. The calyceal synapses in the auditory brainstem feature more than a hundred active zones (AZs) with thousands of releasable synaptic vesicles (SVs). In contrast, the first auditory synapse, the afferent synapse of inner hair cells (IHCs) and type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), typically exhibits a single ribbon-type AZ tethering only tens of SVs resulting in a highly stochastic pattern of transmitter release. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), besides more conventional EPSCs with a single peak, fast rise and decay (compact), also include EPSCs with multiple peaks, variable rise and decay times (non-compact). The strong heterogeneity in size and shape of spontaneous EPSCs has led to the hypothesis of multivesicular release (MVR) that is more (compact) or less (non-compact) synchronized by coordination of release sites. Alternatively, univesicular release (UVR), potentially involving glutamate release through a flickering fusion pore for non-compact EPSCs, has been suggested t...Continue Reading
Delay in vesicle fusion revealed by electrochemical monitoring of single secretory events in adrenal chromaffin cells
Different modes of Ca channel gating behaviour favoured by dihydropyridine Ca agonists and antagonists
Exocytotic release from individual granules exhibits similar properties at mast and chromaffin cells
Ion interaction at the pore of Lc-type Ca2+ channel is sufficient to mediate depolarization-induced exocytosis
Regulation of exocytosis in chromaffin cells by trans-insertion of lysophosphatidylcholine and arachidonic acid into the outer leaflet of the cell membrane
Temperature-dependent differences between readily releasable and reserve pool vesicles in chromaffin cells
Postsynaptic recordings at afferent dendrites contacting cochlear inner hair cells: monitoring multivesicular release at a ribbon synapse
Sharp Ca²⁺ nanodomains beneath the ribbon promote highly synchronous multivesicular release at hair cell synapses
Amperometric resolution of a prespike stammer and evoked phases of fast release from retinal bipolar cells
Adrenaline Facilitates Synaptic Transmission by Synchronizing Release of Acetylcholine Quanta from Motor Nerve Endings.
Chronic Cyanuric Acid Exposure Depresses Hippocampal LTP but Does Not Disrupt Spatial Learning or Memory in the Morris Water Maze.
Resolution of subcomponents of synaptic release from postsynaptic currents in rat hair-cell/auditory-nerve fiber synapses.
Auditory perception is the ability to receive and interpret information attained by the ears. Here is the latest research on factors and underlying mechanisms that influence auditory perception.