Ca2+ Regulates the Kinetics of Synaptic Vesicle Fusion at the Afferent Inner Hair Cell Synapse

Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Chao-Hua Huang, Tobias Moser

Abstract

The early auditory pathway processes information at high rates and with utmost temporal fidelity. Consequently, the synapses in the auditory pathway are highly specialized to meet the extraordinary requirements on signal transmission. The calyceal synapses in the auditory brainstem feature more than a hundred active zones (AZs) with thousands of releasable synaptic vesicles (SVs). In contrast, the first auditory synapse, the afferent synapse of inner hair cells (IHCs) and type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), typically exhibits a single ribbon-type AZ tethering only tens of SVs resulting in a highly stochastic pattern of transmitter release. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), besides more conventional EPSCs with a single peak, fast rise and decay (compact), also include EPSCs with multiple peaks, variable rise and decay times (non-compact). The strong heterogeneity in size and shape of spontaneous EPSCs has led to the hypothesis of multivesicular release (MVR) that is more (compact) or less (non-compact) synchronized by coordination of release sites. Alternatively, univesicular release (UVR), potentially involving glutamate release through a flickering fusion pore for non-compact EPSCs, has been suggested t...Continue Reading

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Citations

May 6, 2019·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Rituparna Chakrabarti, Carolin Wichmann
Aug 3, 2019·Physiological Reviews·Tobias MoserFrank Schmitz
Jan 29, 2019·Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience·Hideki TakagoTobias Moser
Apr 11, 2020·Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology·Venera Khuzakhmetova, Ellya Bukharaeva

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