Oct 31, 2019

Caenorhabditis elegans ADAR editing and the ERI-6/7/MOV10 RNAi pathway silence endogenous viral elements and LTR retrotransposons

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Sylvia E J Fischer, Gary Ruvkun

Abstract

Endogenous retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that are closely related to retroviruses. Desilenced endogenous retroviruses are associated with human autoimmune disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. C. elegans and related Caenorhabdites contain LTR retrotransposons and, as described here, numerous integrated viral genes including viral envelope genes that are part of LTR retrotransposons. We found that both LTR retrotransposons and endogenous viral elements are silenced by ADARs (adenosine deaminases acting on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)) together with the endogenous RNAi factor ERI-6/7, a homolog of Mov10 helicase, a retrotransposon and retrovirus restriction factor in human. siRNAs corresponding to integrated viral genes and LTR retrotransposons, but not to DNA transposons, are dependent on the ADARs and ERI-6/7; on the contrary, siRNAs corresponding to palindromic repeats are increased in adar-eri mutants because of an antiviral RNAi response to dsRNA. Silencing of LTR retrotransposons is dependent on downstream RNAi factors and P granule components but is independent of the viral sensor DRH-1/RIG-I and the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3. The activation of retrotransposons in the ADAR- and ERI-6/7...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Effects of Heat
ADAR
Virus Diseases
Genes
RNA, Small Interfering
Caenorhabditis elegans
RNA, Double-Stranded
Nerve Degeneration
Genes, Viral
Retrotransposons

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