Caffeine Enhances Memory Performance in Young Adults during Their Non-optimal Time of Day

Frontiers in Psychology
Stephanie M ShermanLee Ryan

Abstract

Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1). During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon. In Experiment 2, participants engaged in cardiovascular exercise in order to examine whether increases in physiological arousal similarly improved memory. Despite clear increases in physiological arousal, exercise did not improve memory performance compared to a stretching control condition. These results suggest that caffeine has a specific benefit for memory during students' non-optimal time of day - early morning. These findings have real-world implications for students taking morning exams.

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Citations

Jun 13, 2018·Psychological Reports·David Green, Paul D Loprinzi
Jan 5, 2018·Psychological Reports·Paul D Loprinzi, Meghan K Edwards
Jul 31, 2019·American Journal of Health Promotion : AJHP·Paul D LoprinziLindsay Crawford
Nov 30, 2019·Health Promotion Perspectives·Malina Austin, Paul D Loprinzi
Jun 24, 2018·Journal of Clinical Medicine·Ali Siddiqui, Paul D Loprinzi
Aug 9, 2018·Health Promotion Perspectives·Savanna WingatePaul D Loprinzi
Jun 30, 2019·Health Promotion Perspectives·Emma K DilleyPaul D Loprinzi
Aug 10, 2019·Medicina·Mary Elizabeth Pace, Paul D Loprinzi
Aug 3, 2019·Medicina·Paul D LoprinziAysheka McDonald
Aug 14, 2019·Journal of Clinical Medicine·Paul D LoprinziNoelle Mincarelli
Jun 13, 2018·Journal of Clinical Medicine·Danielle Yanes, Paul D Loprinzi
Jul 31, 2020·The International Journal of Neuroscience·Paul D LoprinziGina Robinson
Apr 17, 2020·Health Promotion Perspectives·Justin CantrellePaul D Loprinzi
Sep 22, 2019·Brain Sciences·Lauren JohnsonPaul D Loprinzi
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Dec 19, 2019·Europe's Journal of Psychology·Paul D LoprinziBriahna Dickerson
Jun 29, 2021·Curēus·Noorine PlumberVasavi Rakesh Gorantla

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