Calcium overload in selectively vulnerable neurons of the hippocampus during and after ischemia: an electron microscopy study in the rat

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Roger SimonB S Meldrum

Abstract

Light and electron microscopy has been used to study the cytopathological changes in the rat hippocampus directly after a 30-min period of forebrain ischemia and after 30 or 120 min of reperfusion. The fine structural localization of calcium has been demonstrated using the oxalate/pyroantimonate procedure. Cellular changes considered typical of ischemia (swelling of astrocytic processes, distention of mitochondria, condensation of cytoplasm, "ischemic cell change") are most prominent after 30 min of reperfusion. At this time, dense calcium pyroantimonate deposits are evident in swollen mitochondria in pyramidal and hilar neurons. After 120 min of reperfusion, substantial restitution has occurred; most mitochondria appear normal and there are few calcium deposits. However, a small number of selectively vulnerable neurons (hilar and pyramidal neurons) show dense condensation (ischemic cell change) with multiple vacuoles containing calcium deposits. The role of excessive calcium entry and mitochondrial calcium overload during the reperfusion period in determining the death of selectively vulnerable neurons is discussed.

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