Calcium/calmodulin and calmodulin kinase II stimulate hyperactivation in demembranated bovine sperm

Biology of Reproduction
George G Ignotz, Susan S Suarez

Abstract

Hyperactivated motility is observed among sperm in the mammalian oviduct near the time of ovulation. It is characterized by high-amplitude, asymmetrical flagellar beating and assists sperm in penetrating the cumulus oophorus and zona pellucida. Elevated intracellular Ca2+ is required for the initiation of hyperactivated motility, suggesting that calmodulin (CALM) and Ca2+/CALM-stimulated pathways are involved. A demembranated sperm model was used to investigate the role of CALM in promoting hyperactivation. Ejaculated bovine sperm were demembranated and immobilized by brief exposure to Triton X-100. Motility was restored by addition of reactivation medium containing MgATP and Ca2+, and hyperactivation was observed as free Ca2+ was increased from 50 nM to 1 microM. However, when 2.5 mM Ca2+ was added to the demembranation medium to extract flagellar CALM, motility was not reactivated unless exogenous CALM was readded. The inclusion of anti-CALM IgG in the reactivation medium reduced the proportion hyperactivated in 1 microM Ca2+ to 5%. Neither control IgG, the CALM antagonist W-7, nor a peptide directed against the CALM-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase (MYLK2) inhibited hyperactivation. However, when sperm were reacti...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
Electrophoresis
gel filtration

Software Mentioned

VassarStats

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