Callose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis with a focus on pathogen response: what we have learned within the last decade

Annals of Botany
Dorothea Ellinger, Christian A Voigt

Abstract

(1,3)-β-Glucan callose is a cell wall polymer that is involved in several fundamental biological processes, ranging from plant development to the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Despite its importance in maintaining plant integrity and plant defence, knowledge about the regulation of callose biosynthesis at its diverse sites of action within the plant is still limited. The moderately sized family of GSL (GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE) genes is predicted to encode callose synthases with a specific biological function and subcellular localization. Phosphorylation and directed translocation of callose synthases seem to be key post-translational mechanisms of enzymatic regulation, whereas transcriptional control of GSL genes might only have a minor function in response to biotic or abiotic stresses. Among the different sites of callose biosynthesis within the plant, particular attention has been focused on the formation of callose in response to pathogen attack. Here, callose is deposited between the plasma membrane and the cell wall to act as a physical barrier to stop or slow invading pathogens. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is one of the best-studied models not only for general plant defence responses but also for the regul...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Establishment and Maintenance of Localization
Transcriptional Regulation
Arabidopsis
Pathogenic Organism
GSL1 protein, Arabidopsis
Protein Phosphorylation
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
callose
Cell Wall
Host-Pathogen Interactions
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