Cancer metabolomic markers in urine: evidence, techniques and recommendations

Nature Reviews. Urology
Sarah S DingesLeo L Cheng


Urinary tests have been used as noninvasive, cost-effective tools for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diseases since ancient times. As we progress through the 21st century, modern analytical platforms have enabled effective measurement of metabolites, with promising results for both a deeper understanding of cancer pathophysiology and, ultimately, clinical translation. The first study to measure metabolomic urinary cancer biomarkers using NMR and mass spectrometry (MS) was published in 2006 and, since then, these techniques have been used to detect cancers of the urological system (kidney, prostate and bladder) and nonurological tumours including those of the breast, ovary, lung, liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, bone and blood. This growing field warrants an assessment of the current status of research developments and recommendations to help systematize future research.


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Methods Mentioned

environmental stress
metabolomic profiling
urine collections

Clinical Trials Mentioned


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Biological Markers
Urinary Bladder
Malignant Neoplasms
Laboratory Procedures

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