Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review

Lancet
Theresa H M MooreGlyn Lewis

Abstract

Whether cannabis can cause psychotic or affective symptoms that persist beyond transient intoxication is unclear. We systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to cannabis use and occurrence of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, ISI Proceedings, ZETOC, BIOSIS, LILACS, and MEDCARIB from their inception to September, 2006, searched reference lists of studies selected for inclusion, and contacted experts. Studies were included if longitudinal and population based. 35 studies from 4804 references were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were done independently and in duplicate. There was an increased risk of any psychotic outcome in individuals who had ever used cannabis (pooled adjusted odds ratio=1.41, 95% CI 1.20-1.65). Findings were consistent with a dose-response effect, with greater risk in people who used cannabis most frequently (2.09, 1.54-2.84). Results of analyses restricted to studies of more clinically relevant psychotic disorders were similar. Depression, suicidal thoughts, and anxiety outcomes were examined separately. Findings for these outcomes were less consistent, and fewer attempts were made to address non-causal e...Continue Reading

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Jul 26, 2008·Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie·Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
Jul 18, 2015·European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience·Johannes RentzschMaria C Jockers-Scherübl
Mar 3, 2015·Psychological Medicine·Lisa BuchyJean Addington
Aug 26, 2015·The Lancet. Psychiatry·David M FergussonL John Horwood
Jul 5, 2015·Irish Journal of Medical Science·P Barrett, C Bradley
Sep 12, 2015·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Tom P Freeman
Jun 10, 2015·International Journal of Epidemiology·Marie Kim Wium-AndersenBørge Grønne Nordestgaard
Sep 12, 2015·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Marta Di FortiRobin MacGregor Murray
Sep 12, 2015·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Suzanne H GageGeorge Davey Smith
Jul 1, 2015·Indian Journal of Psychiatry·Abhishek Ghosh, Debasish Basu
Apr 17, 2008·European Journal of Pharmacology·Viviana TrezzaLouk J M J Vanderschuren
Mar 11, 2015·European Psychiatry : the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists·A Muro I Rodríguez
Mar 23, 2013·Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses·Dante DurandDiana Nichols-Vinueza
Apr 25, 2009·Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy·Joan L BottorffTamsin Mulvogue
Nov 17, 2012·Neuropharmacology·Dilshani W N DissanayakeCharles A Marsden
Aug 27, 2013·Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry·Jon McClellanAmerican Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues (CQI)
Mar 25, 2015·Schizophrenia Research·T Winton-BrownPhilip McGuire
May 16, 2013·Schizophrenia Research·Paulo Jannuzzi CunhaMaristela S Schaufelberger
May 21, 2010·Schizophrenia Research·Pamela DerosseAnil K Malhotra
Sep 24, 2011·Schizophrenia Research·Joan M Striebel, Joseph M Pierre
Dec 4, 2014·Drug and Alcohol Dependence·Margaretha de LoozeWilliam Pickett
Sep 13, 2011·Schizophrenia Research·Judith RietdijkMark van der Gaag
Jul 28, 2013·Drug and Alcohol Dependence·Peggy van der PolMargriet van Laar
Jun 29, 2013·Schizophrenia Research·Daniel FreemanGraham Dunn
Jan 7, 2011·Drug and Alcohol Dependence·Merel F H Griffith-LenderingHanna Swaab
Nov 8, 2011·Drug and Alcohol Dependence·Monique MalmbergRutger C M E Engels
Aug 12, 2014·Psychoneuroendocrinology·Leah GirshkinMelissa J Green
Feb 9, 2012·Schizophrenia Research·Daniel van DijkWim van den Brink
Jun 17, 2014·Schizophrenia Research·Willemijn A van GastelMarco P M Boks
Apr 22, 2014·The International Journal on Drug Policy·Marian ShanahanAlison Ritter
May 20, 2011·Schizophrenia Research·Christian D SchubartMarco P M Boks
Jun 15, 2012·Schizophrenia Research·Patrik RoserMartin Brüne
Aug 21, 2013·Schizophrenia Research·Laura FerraroMarta Di Forti
Dec 13, 2012·Neurobiology of Learning and Memory·Behnam YousefiMohammad Reza Zarrindast
Feb 3, 2015·Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment·Ifeoma N OnyekaJussi Kauhanen
Sep 12, 2015·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Merete Nordentoft
Sep 12, 2015·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Edmund SilinsCannabis Cohorts Research Consortium
Sep 12, 2015·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Matcheri S KeshavanTomas Paus
Mar 3, 2015·Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology·Rajiv RadhakrishnanDeepak Cyril D'Souza
Mar 17, 2015·Drug and Alcohol Dependence·M J DelforterieArpana Agrawal
Jul 4, 2013·Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry·Emilio Fernandez-EgeaPeter B Jones
Apr 15, 2014·Journal of Health Economics·Jenny Williams, Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
Nov 20, 2010·Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry·Zoltan MakkosJudit Lazary
Aug 27, 2014·Journal of Affective Disorders·Kathryn Elizabeth CairnsAnthony Francis Jorm
Mar 4, 2014·Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews·Ryan J McLaughlinBoris B Gorzalka
Oct 7, 2014·Journal of Affective Disorders·Melanie GibbsSwaran P Singh
Jul 24, 2012·Psychiatry Research·Raphael J BragaAnil K Malhotra
Jan 28, 2014·Psychiatry Research·Kim DonoghueJames H Maccabe
Dec 3, 2014·Journal of Affective Disorders·Daniel FeingoldS Lev-Ran
May 1, 2013·Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews·János M RéthelyiIstván Bitter
Feb 27, 2015·The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. Le Journal Canadien Des Sciences Neurologiques·Richard S McLachlan
Jun 18, 2010·Journal of Psychiatric Research·Bart D PetersLieuwe de Haan
Apr 2, 2014·Schizophrenia Research·Andrew Kenneth MartinBryan Mowry
Feb 11, 2015·Schizophrenia Research·Tabitha A Iseger, M G Bossong
Dec 3, 2011·Biological Psychiatry·Romina MizrahiAlan A Wilson
Feb 5, 2013·Comprehensive Psychiatry·S Lev-RanJürgen Rehm
Mar 15, 2015·Clinical Neuropharmacology·Timothy I Michaels, Vladan Novakovic
Jul 12, 2014·Schizophrenia Bulletin·Christine BarrowcloughRichard Emsley
May 12, 2011·The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology·Martin CohenUlrich Schall
Nov 15, 2011·The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology·Colm O'TuathaighJohn Waddington
Sep 25, 2009·The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology·Paolo Fusar-PoliPhilip McGuire
Sep 30, 2009·The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology·Leonora E LongTim Karl
Aug 4, 2010·The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology·F Markus Leweke, Miriam Schneider
Sep 25, 2014·Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology·Sagnik BhattacharyyaPhilip McGuire
May 27, 2014·Frontiers in Psychiatry·Rudolf Uher
Aug 30, 2014·The International Journal on Drug Policy·R Secades-VillaCarlos Blanco
Dec 24, 2014·European Neuropsychopharmacology : the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology·Sagnik BhattacharyyaPhilip McGuire
Feb 5, 2015·Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics : JDBP·Scott E HadlandSion K Harris
Jul 16, 2014·Development and Psychopathology·Isaac J Washburn, Deborah M Capaldi
Jun 28, 2014·European Journal of Public Health·Margaretha de LoozeWilma A M Vollebergh
Jul 21, 2014·Psychopharmacology·Judith F NottagePaul D Morrison
Aug 16, 2014·Substance Abuse : Official Publication of the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse·Christian Hopfer
Aug 15, 2014·Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology·Stephan C J HuijbregtsHanna Swaab
Jul 28, 2016·The International Journal on Drug Policy·Vendula BelackovaTomas Zabransky
May 10, 2016·Schizophrenia Research·Mayke JanssensGenetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis investigators
May 15, 2016·Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology·Brian O'DonoghueAbbie Lane
May 23, 2016·Schizophrenia Research·G BaudinFondaMental Academic Centers of Expertise for Schizophrenia (FACE-SZ) Collaborators
Jun 13, 2016·Psychiatry Research. Neuroimaging·Lisa BuchyJean Addington
Jun 9, 2016·Journal of Addictions Nursing
Jun 7, 2016·World Psychiatry : Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)·Jim Van Os, Uli Reininghaus
Jun 19, 2016·Progress in Neurobiology·Sharon L Hollins, Murray J Cairns
Nov 12, 2016·The Linacre Quarterly·Ezra Sullivan, Nicanor Austriaco
Mar 28, 2012·Biological Psychiatry·Patrick D SkosnikDeepak Cyril D'Souza
Jun 28, 2016·Neurotoxicology and Teratology·Olivier J BarthelemyDeborah A Frank
Jan 19, 2016·Lancet·Michael J OwenPreben B Mortensen
Oct 19, 2010·Biological Psychiatry·Petra HabetsGenetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (G.R.O.U.P)
Oct 1, 2016·Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research·Susan I WoodruffMichael J Sise
Feb 15, 2011·Drug and Alcohol Dependence·Susanna Every-Palmer
Oct 20, 2010·Progress in Neurobiology·Alan S Brown
Oct 4, 2016·International Journal of Health Policy and Management·Mohammad Hajizadeh
Aug 3, 2016·Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences·Shikha Prashad, Francesca M Filbey
Sep 24, 2008·Schizophrenia Research·Cheryl M CorcoranDolores Malaspina
Sep 11, 2016·Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America·Viviana E HorigianJosé Szapocznik
Aug 28, 2016·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Rachel A Rabin, Tony P George
Sep 11, 2016·The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse·Rebecca C HannaSubroto Ghose
Sep 10, 2013·Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America·Danielle Goerke, Sanjiv Kumra
Jan 19, 2016·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Matthew Large
Feb 26, 2016·The Lancet. Psychiatry·Wayne HallLouisa Degenhardt