Cardiovascular disease: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and risk among users of oral contraceptives who smoke

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
W P Castelli

Abstract

Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease among persons of both sexes. The risk of cardiovascular disease is further increased among users of oral contraceptives who smoke, particularly those who are >/=35 years old or carry the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation. Other important cardiovascular disease risk factors in women include waist/hip girth ratio >0.8, high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (>115 mg/dL), high triglyceride level (>/=150 mg/dL) with low concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (</=45 mg/dL), high ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (4.0), high ratio of low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (3.0), glucose values >/=100 mg/dL, hypertension, lack of physical activity, and high-fat diet. Most excess cardiovascular disease among users of oral contraceptives is due to thrombosis (not atherosclerosis); studies indicate that the lower the oral contraceptive estrogen dose is, the lower is this risk. Oral contraceptives containing the third-generation progestins desogestrel and gestodene have been associated with greater risks of venous thromboembolism than are associated with older progestins, although there is some controversy ...Continue Reading

References

Jul 1, 1992·Annals of Epidemiology·I Juhan-Vague, D Collen
May 1, 1992·European Journal of Epidemiology·C C Kelleher
Jul 1, 1991·Seminars in Nuclear Medicine·R O Bonow, V Dilsizian
Nov 15, 1990·The New England Journal of Medicine·I F GodslandV Wynn
Jun 1, 1990·Journal of Internal Medicine·E Ernst
Dec 1, 1988·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·G N MileikowskyS Roy
Nov 17, 1988·The New England Journal of Medicine·M J StampferC H Hennekens
Jul 1, 1985·Arteriosclerosis : an Official Journal of the American Heart Association, Inc·M PoapstG Steiner
Apr 14, 1983·The New England Journal of Medicine·P WahlB Rifkind
Aug 1, 1995·Circulation·E FalkV Fuster
Feb 23, 1995·The New England Journal of Medicine·T J AndersonP Ganz
Jan 1, 1995·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·R A WildA Knehans
Jan 1, 1994·Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis : a Journal of Vascular Biology·J HeinrichJ van de Loo
Jan 24, 1994·Archives of Internal Medicine·I KawachiC H Hennekens
Feb 1, 1997·The American Journal of Cardiology·R A VogelG D Plotnick

Citations

Jun 25, 2008·Clinical Research in Cardiology : Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society·Vera Regitz-ZagrosekChristoph Nienaber
Nov 29, 2007·International Journal of Obesity : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity·S Tonstad
Dec 1, 2007·Climacteric : the Journal of the International Menopause Society·Peter CollinsMarco Stramba-Badiale
Apr 24, 2004·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·Ronald BurkmanMiriam Zieman
Nov 6, 2007·European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation : Official Journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology·Ian GrahamEuropean Atherosclerosis Society (EAS)
Aug 28, 2016·Thrombosis Research·Albe C SwanepoelEtheresia Pretorius
Sep 14, 2007·The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry : the Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry·Anne Maria Möller-Leimkühler
Jul 16, 2005·Gynecological Endocrinology : the Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology·Fulvia ManciniDomenico De Aloysio

Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Cardiovascular Disease Pathophysiology

Cardiovascular disease involves several different processes that contribute to the pathological mechanism, including hyperglycemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension and more. Vasculature stability plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Discover the latest research on cardiovascular disease pathophysiology here.