PMID: 9436575Jan 22, 1998Paper

Causes of death after the modified Norwood procedure: a study of 122 postmortem cases

The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
U BartramR Van Praagh

Abstract

Although the results of the modified Norwood procedure as palliation for the hypoplastic left heart syndrome have improved considerably, in-hospital mortality remains high (28% to 46%). To establish the causes of death and consider their therapeutic applications, we reviewed our pathology experience from 1980 to 1995, inclusive, regarding 122 patients who died after undergoing the Norwood procedure. The most important causes of death were found to be impairment of coronary perfusion (33 patients, 27%), excessive pulmonary blood flow (23 patients, 19%), obstruction of pulmonary arterial blood flow (21 patients, 17%), neoaortic obstruction (17 patients, 14%), right ventricular failure (16 patients, 13%), bleeding (9 patients, 7%), infection (6 patients, 5%), tricuspid or common atrioventricular valve dysfunction (6 patients, 5%), sudden death from presumed arrhythmias (6 patients, 5%), and necrotizing enterocolitis (3 patients, 3%). In 26 patients (21%), more than one factor appeared responsible for death. The leading causes of death after the Norwood procedure were found to be largely correctable surgical technical problems associated with perfusion of the lungs (36%), of the myocardium (27%), and of the systemic organs (14%).

References

Dec 1, 1991·The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon·R Van Praagh, W K Jung
Sep 11, 1991·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·W I Norwood
Mar 8, 1971·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·T Gordon, W B Kannel
Jan 1, 1980·The American Journal of Cardiology·W I NorwoodS P Sanders
Jan 6, 1983·The New England Journal of Medicine·W I NorwoodD D Hansen

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Citations

Jul 26, 2008·Pediatric Cardiology·Tara MaharGeorge Alfieris
Nov 22, 2011·Pediatric Cardiology·Matthew J O'ConnorMichael D Quartermain
Mar 23, 2013·Pediatric Cardiology·Jeffrey H Shuhaiber, Frank A Pigula
Mar 6, 2004·The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery·Mark D RodefeldJohn W Brown
Jan 13, 2001·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·M H AbdullahI Adatia
Feb 24, 2001·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·W T MahleB J Clark
Jul 5, 2003·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·Kathleen N FentonFrank A Pigula
Jan 17, 2004·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·Gail E WrightThomas J Kulik
Feb 5, 2004·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·Paul A ChecchiaLeonard L Bailey
Aug 21, 2003·The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery·Shunji SanoShin-ichi Ohtsuki
Dec 11, 2003·The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery·N S GhanayemJ S Tweddell
Apr 28, 1999·Pediatric Clinics of North America·R T Fedderly
Feb 13, 2001·European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery : Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery·P SuominenJ Räsänen
Jul 15, 2006·Cardiology in the Young·Christo I TchervenkovGiovanni Stellin
Dec 15, 2005·Heart, Lung & Circulation·S P SettyA R Kerr
Jan 6, 2012·European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery : Official Journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery·Jan H HansenGunther Fischer
Jul 5, 2012·Journal of Biomechanical Engineering·Mahdi Esmaily MoghadamUNKNOWN Modeling of Congenital Hearts Alliance (MOCHA) Investigators
Nov 24, 2001·Archives of Disease in Childhood·A P Salmon
Jul 8, 2008·Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance : Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance·D Scott LimChristopher M Kramer
Dec 1, 2009·Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery·Marc GewilligMatthias Gorenflo
Jan 24, 2013·Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing·A de VecchiN P Smith
Mar 29, 2014·The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery·Nancy A RuddNancy S Ghanayem
Mar 17, 2012·The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery·Jeffrey ShuhaiberFrank Pigula
Jan 21, 2011·The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery·Meena NathanFrank Pigula
Dec 21, 2010·American Heart Journal·Bhavya TrivediRonald J Kanter
Aug 21, 2010·The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery·Jean A BallwegChitra Ravishankar
Aug 18, 2009·Lancet·David J BarronWilliam J Brawn
Jul 15, 2015·Cardiology in the Young·Charles R Cole, Pirooz Eghtesady
May 24, 2008·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·Jenifer A GlatzJames S Tweddell
Sep 25, 2007·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·Brian McAlvinWilliam T Mahle
Jul 31, 2004·Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual·Shunji SanoOsami Honjo

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Arrhythmia

Arrhythmias are abnormalities in heart rhythms, which can be either too fast or too slow. They can result from abnormalities of the initiation of an impulse or impulse conduction or a combination of both. Here is the latest research on arrhythmias.

Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly due to stroke and thromboembolism. Here is the latest research.