A pulmonary cavity is a gas-filled area of the lung in the center of a nodule or area of consolidation and may be clinically observed by use of plain chest radiography or computed tomography. Cavities are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of pathological processes associated with lung cavities, focusing on infections associated with lung cavities. The goal is to provide the clinician and clinical microbiologist with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with lung cavities, with attention to the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the host.
Penicillium marneffei infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: late presentation in an area of nonendemicity
Pulmonary tuberculosis in Kigali, Rwanda. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on clinical and radiographic presentation
Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in acid, brown-water swamps of the southeastern United States and their association with environmental variables
Prevalence of virulent Rhodococcus equi in isolates from soil and feces of horses from horse-breeding farms with and without endemic infections.
The chest roentgenogram in pulmonary tuberculosis patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1
New diagnostic signs in hydatid disease; radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI correlated to pathology
Thin-walled cavities, cysts, and pneumothorax in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: further observations with histopathologic correlation
Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma presenting as diffuse reticular nodular infiltrates with cavitary lesions
Idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Definition of characteristic clinical profiles in a series of 16 patients
Infections caused by Penicillium marneffei in China and Southeast Asia: review of eighteen published cases and report of four more Chinese cases
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in acute leukemia. The contribution of CT to early diagnosis and aggressive management
Apical fibrocavitary lesions of the lung in rheumatoid arthritis. Report of two cases and review of the literature
Importance of a lipopolysaccharide-containing extracellular toxic complex in infections produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and acute leukemia. Limitations in the diagnostic utility of the air crescent sign
Radiological findings in pulmonary paragonimiasis as seen in Nigeria: a review based on one hundred cases
Paracoccidioidomycosis. A clinical and mycologic study of forty-one cases observed in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Echinococcus disease. Report of 112 cases from Iran and a review of 611 cases from the United States
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a comparison between patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and patients with other immunodeficiencies
Glossary of terms for thoracic radiology: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the Fleischner Society
Estrogens inhibit mycelium-to-yeast transformation in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: implications for resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis.
Cavitary histoplasmosis occurring during two large urban outbreaks. Analysis of clinical, epidemiologic, roentgenographic, and laboratory features
"Semi-invasive" pulmonary aspergillosis: a new look at the spectrum of aspergillus infections of the lung
Necrotizing or cavitating pneumonia due to Streptococcus Pneumoniae: report of four cases and review of the literature
The etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of microorganisms in acute community-acquired lung abscess
Immunoblot evaluation of the 100 and 130 kDa antigens in camel hydatid cyst fluid for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis in Libya
Alveolar hydatid disease. Review of the surgical experience in 42 cases of active disease among Alaskan Eskimos
Seroepidemiologic screening of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in a European area endemic for alveolar echinococcosis
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. MRI, CT, and plain radiographic findings and their contribution for early diagnosis
Lung cavitation associated with Pneumocystis carinii infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a report of six cases and review of the literature
Ultrastructural observation of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from non-AIDS patients with P carinii pneumonia
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients without predisposing illnesses. Acute episode and follow-up of five cases
Chest radiographic findings in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: observations from the PIOPED Study
Pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium malmoense and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: comparison of radiographic features
Pulmonary tuberculosis: CT findings--early active disease and sequential change with antituberculous therapy
Clinical features of pulmonary disease caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria. An analysis of 154 patients
Predictive value of bronchoalveolar lavage in excluding a diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia during prophylaxis with aerosolized pentamidine
Detection and differential diagnosis of pulmonary infections and tumors in patients with AIDS: value of chest radiography versus CT
Case report and review of disseminated histoplasmosis in South-East Asia: clinical and epidemiological implications
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breast cancer incidence and mortality--United States, 1992
Pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection: comparison of the clinical features, treatment and outcome with pulmonary tuberculosis
Case-control study of risk factors for Penicillium marneffei infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in northern Thailand
Mycobacterium kansasii pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS: spectrum of chest radiographic findings
Lung findings on high-resolution computed tomography in idiopathic ankylosing spondylitis--correlation with clinical findings, pulmonary function testing and plain radiography
Clinical predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients
Clinical and radiographic manifestations of uncommon pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in AIDS patients
Pneumonia after heart transplantation: a multi-institutional study. Spanish Transplantation Infection Study Group
Isolation of a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain from the soil of a coffee plantation in Ibiá, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil
Human cystic echinococcosis in a Uruguayan community: a sonographic, serologic, and epidemiologic study
Incidence and clinical implications of isolation of Mycobacterium kansasii: results of a 5-year, population-based study
Pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients and in bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplant recipients: use of high-resolution computed tomography
Clinical presentation, radiographic findings, and diagnostic methods of pulmonary blastomycosis: a review of 100 consecutive cases
Unusual pulmonary manifestations of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in three AIDS patients
Chronic pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis): high-resolution CT findings in 41 patients
Indigenous disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in the state of Manipur, India: report of four autochthonous cases
An extensive ultrasound and serologic study to investigate the prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis in northern Libya
Endemic regions of paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil: a clinical and epidemiologic study of 584 cases in the southeast region
An epidemiologic survey of human alveolar echinococcosis in southwestern Germany. Römerstein Study Group
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative immunocompromised patients
Transmission of Pneumocystis carinii DNA from a patient with P. carinii pneumonia to immunocompetent contact health care workers
Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, July 1999. This is a Joint Statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This statement was endorsed by the Council of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (IDSA), September 1999, and the sections of this statement
Increasing incidence of Mycobacterium xenopi at Bellevue hospital: An emerging pathogen or a product of improved laboratory methods?
Multiple lung abscesses due to Ochroconis gallopavum, a dematiaceous fungus, in a nonimmunocompromised wood pulp worker
Pneumococcal pneumonia in patients requiring hospitalization: effects of bacteremia and HIV seropositivity on radiographic appearance
Successful outcome of Scedosporium apiospermum disseminated infection treated with voriconazole in a patient receiving corticosteroid therapy
Consecutive bacillary angiomatosis and Rhodococcus equi bacteremia during acute leukemia: zoonoses may cause fever in neutropenic patients
First randomised trial of treatments for pulmonary disease caused by M avium intracellulare, M malmoense, and M xenopi in HIV negative patients: rifampicin, ethambutol and isoniazid versus rifampicin and ethambutol
Risk factors for severe pulmonary and disseminated coccidioidomycosis: Kern County, California, 1995-1996
Candida tropicalis and Penicillium marneffei mixed fungaemia in a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia
Diffuse pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in immunocompetent people (hot tub lung)
Infectious complications among 620 consecutive heart transplant patients at Stanford University Medical Center
Differences in clinical and laboratory diagnostic characteristics of penicilliosis marneffei in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and non-HIV-infected patients
Coexisting bronchogenic carcinoma and pulmonary tuberculosis in the same lobe: radiologic findings and clinical significance
Cryptococcus neoformans infection in a cohort of Italian AIDS patients: natural history, early prognostic parameters, and autopsy findings
The radiologic differential diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases characterized by multiple cysts or cavities
Pulmonary infection caused by Rhodococcus equi in HIV-infected patients: report of four patients from northern Thailand
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with malignant haematological diseases: 10 years' experience of infection in GIMEMA centres
Rhodococcus equi infection in transplant recipients: a case of mistaken identity and review of the literature
Non-typhoidal salmonella bacteraemia among HIV-infected Malawian adults: high mortality and frequent recrudescence
Analysis of underlying diseases and prognosis factors associated with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunocompromised HIV-negative patients
The role of person-to-person transmission in an epidemiologic study of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Rifapentine and isoniazid once a week versus rifampicin and isoniazid twice a week for treatment of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients: a randomised clinical trial
Incidence and clinical significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens during a 2-y nationwide survey
Infection with Nocardia species: clinical spectrum of disease and species distribution in Madrid, Spain, 1978-2001
Trends in risk profiles for and mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis among liver transplant recipients
Cases from the Osler Medical Service at Johns Hopkins University. Scedosporium apiospermum mycetoma of the lung
Lung parenchyma changes in ankylosing spondylitis: demonstration with high resolution CT and correlation with disease duration
Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium xenopi in HIV-negative patients: five year follow-up of patients receiving standardised treatment
Accuracy of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and non- Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients
Pathogen of occurrence and susceptibility patterns associated with pneumonia in hospitalized patients in North America: results of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Study (2000)
Prognosis and clinical evaluation of infection caused by Rhodococcus equi in HIV-infected patients: a multicenter study of 67 cases
Radiographic and CT findings of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium abscessus
Infectious pulmonary nodules in immunocompromised patients: usefulness of computed tomography in predicting their etiology
Chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis: case series, proposed nomenclature change, and review
Residual pulmonary abnormalities in adult patients with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis: prolonged follow-up after itraconazole therapy
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi infection: a need to treat?
Studies on the aetiology of human actinomycosis. II. Do the other microbes of actinomycosis possess virulence?
Lung findings on thoracic high-resolution computed tomography in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Correlations with disease duration, clinical findings and pulmonary function testing
Coccidioidomycosis: a descriptive survey of a reemerging disease. Clinical characteristics and current controversies
Pneumonia and mesenteric lymphadenopathy caused by disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in a cadaveric renal transplant recipient
Proposal to elevate the genetic variant MAC-A, included in the Mycobacterium avium complex, to species rank as Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov
Cystic echinococcosis in Argentina: evolution of metacestode and clinical expression in various Echinococcus granulosus strains
A decade surveillance study of Mycobacterium xenopi disease and antimicrobial susceptibility levels in a reference teaching hospital of northern Italy: HIV-associated versus non-HIV-associated infection
Contribution to the natural history of paracoccidioidomycosis: identification of the primary pulmonary infection in the severe acute form of the disease--a case report
Distribution of paracoccidioidomycosis: determination of ecologic correlates through spatial analyses
Pulmonary infections in the late period after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: chest radiography versus computed tomography
Varied clinical manifestations of Penicillium marneffei in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: a report from south India
Invasive filamentous fungal infections in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients after recovery from neutropenia: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics
Changing bacteriology of adult community-acquired lung abscess in Taiwan: Klebsiella pneumoniae versus anaerobes
What caused the epidemic of Pneumocystis pneumonia in European premature infants in the mid-20th century?
Pulmonary manifestations in children with invasive community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infection
Clinical features and follow up of 302 patients with Mycobacterium kansasii pulmonary infection: a 50 year experience
Incidence of invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation: interim results of a prospective multicenter surveillance program
Initial CT manifestations of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in 45 non-HIV immunocompromised patients: association with patient outcome?
Tumor cavitation in stage I non-small cell lung cancer: epidermal growth factor receptor expression and prediction of poor outcome
Thin-section CT findings of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary diseases: comparison between Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex and Mycobacterium abscessus infection
Penicillium marneffei infection in an immunocompromised traveler: a case report and literature review
Pulmonary cryptococcosis: comparison of clinical and radiographic characteristics in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.
Endemic fungal infections caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Penicillium marneffei in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy
Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), in Vietnam: a molecular identification and relationships of isolates from different hosts and geographical origins
Tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities, challenges, and change in the era of antiretroviral treatment
Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in an HIV-positive Italian patient and a review of cases reported outside endemic regions
Influence of type of cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on clinical presentation of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in cancer patients
Test and teach. Fever and disseminated lymphadenopathy in a SLE patient in Hong Kong. Diagnosis: Penicilliosis
Pulmonary Mycobacterium intracellulare disease with a solitary pulmonary nodule detected at the onset of pneumothorax
Associations between the ecology of virulent Rhodococcus equi and the epidemiology of R. equi pneumonia on Australian thoroughbred farms
Comparison of plain chest radiography and high-resolution CT in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a sub-Saharan Africa study
Evaluation of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection risk factors in patients with connective tissue disease
Differences and similarities of cytomegalovirus and pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-negative immunocompromised patients thin section CT morphology in the early phase of the disease
Evaluation of fecal samples from mares as a source of Rhodococcus equi for their foals by use of quantitative bacteriologic culture and colony immunoblot analyses
An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases
Pulmonary cavitary mass containing a mural nodule: differential diagnosis between intracavitary aspergilloma and cavitating lung cancer on contrast-enhanced computed tomography
Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with HIV infection: clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and radiological features.
Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease
An outbreak of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia with 1 predominant genotype among renal transplant recipients: interhuman transmission or a common environmental source?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, acid suppression, and Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease
Risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of Nocardia infection in organ transplant recipients: a matched case-control study
Factors predicting mortality in necrotizing community-acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin
Redefining the clinical spectrum of chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis: a retrospective case series of 46 patients
Post-operative infections in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients after lung transplantation
Use of a population-based survey to determine incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses among HIV-positive persons receiving medical care in the United States
The value of multislice spiral CT features of cavitary walls in differentiating between peripheral lung cancer cavities and single pulmonary tuberculous thick-walled cavities
An elderly female with rib osteolytic lesion after recovery from fulminant liver failure induced by acute-onset autoimmune hepatitis
Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Coccidioidomycosis Demonstrated by a Case of Spontaneous Pulmonary Rupture of Cavitary Coccidioidomycosis
Neisseria lactamica Causing a Lung Cavity and Skin Rash in a Renal Transplant Patient: First Report from India
Recurrent bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Bulbine abyssinica Used in the Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
A retrospective analysis of computed tomography findings in patients with pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Clinical Usefulness of PCR for Differential Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection in Paraffin-Embedded Lung Tissues
CT features of focal organizing pneumonia: an analysis of consecutive histopathologically confirmed 45 cases
Surgically resected solitary cavitary lung adenocarcinoma: association between clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings and prognosis
Radial endobronchial ultrasound with a guide sheath for diagnosis of peripheral cavitary lung lesions: a retrospective study
A Novel Reading Scheme for Assessing the Extent of Radiographic Abnormalities and Its Association with Disease Severity in Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis: An Observational Study in Hyderabad/India
Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Aspergilloma-Coexistence of Two Rare Sequelae of Pulmonary Embolism
Treatment of a giant pulmonary emphysematous cyst with primary bronchoalveolar papillary carcinoma in a Shih Tzu dog
Repetitive Aerosol Exposure Promotes Cavitary Tuberculosis and Enables Screening for Targeted Inhibitors of Extensive Lung Destruction
Community-acquired Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection presenting as a cavitary lung disease in an immunocompetent patient
Retrospective Study in Children With Necrotizing Pneumonia: Nine Years of Intensive Care Experience.
Cavitating lung lesion as a manifestation of inflammatory tumor (pseudotumor) of the lung: A case report and literature review
First report of cavitary pneumonia due to community-acquired Acinetobacter pittii, study of virulence and overview of pathogenesis and treatment
A Rare Case of Cavitary Lesion of the Lung Caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in an Immunocompetent Patient
Pulmonary disease by non-tuberculous mycobacteria - clinical management, unmet needs and future perspectives
An unusual case of cavitating pulmonary nodules: Lemierre's syndrome with isolated involvement of the external jugular vein
Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis increases the risk of pulmonary cavitation in pastoralist setting of Ethiopia
Evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule: size matters, but do not ignore the power of morphology
The value of bronchial and cavity contraction rates in differentiating benign and malignant pulmonary cavities.
Dilemma in management: a patient with active systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with pulmonary cavitary lesion
The Pseudocavitation Sign of Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Distinguishing Feature and Imaging Biomarker of Lepidic Growth
Nosocomial Achromobacter xylosoxidans Infection Presenting as a Cavitary Lung Lesion in a Lung Cancer Patient
Characteristic chest CT findings for progressive cavities in Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: a retrospective cohort study
Determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in São Paulo-Brazil: a multilevel Bayesian analysis of factors associated with individual, community and access to health services
Lung-RADS Version 1.1: Challenges and a Look Ahead, From the AJR Special Series on Radiology Reporting and Data Systems.
Diverse Cavity Types and Evidence that Mechanical Action on the Necrotic Granuloma Drives Tuberculous Cavitation
Clinical Implications of Size of Cavities in Patients With Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease: A Single-Center Cohort Study.
Tuberculosis: An Overview of the Immunogenic Response, Disease Progression, and Medicinal Chemistry Efforts in the Last Decade toward the Development of Potential Drugs for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Strains.
The Peripheral Blood Transcriptome Is Correlated With PET Measures of Lung Inflammation During Successful Tuberculosis Treatment.
Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial lung biopsy for the diagnosis of cavitary peripheral pulmonary lesions.
Comparing rates of mycobacterial clearance in sputum smear-negative and smear-positive adults living with HIV.
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