To analyze all the arguments against chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a medical entity, and its association with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to revise all the findings suggesting a possible connection between these two entities. We revised the methodology and results of all fourteen published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients. Furthermore, we take into consideration other work dealing with possible causes and explanations of venous, as well as vascular dysfunctions linked with MS. Studies of prevalence show a great variability in prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients. However, a recent meta-analysis assessed an over 13 times increased prevalence in MS. Global hypoperfusion of the brain, and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in MS was shown to be related to CCSVI. Post-mortem studies show a higher prevalence of intraluminal defects in the main extracranial vein in MS patients in respect to controls. Taking into account the current epidemiological data, the autoptic findings, and the relationship between CCSVI and both hypoperfusion and cerebrospinal fluid flow, CCSVI can be inserted in the list of multiple factors involved in MS pathogenesis. Our careful data analysis may conclude that great va...Continue Reading
Retinal venous sheathing in optic neuritis. Its significance for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis
Regional cerebral blood flow in multiple sclerosis measured by single photon emission tomography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime
A simple mathematical model of the interaction between intracranial pressure and cerebral hemodynamics
Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis: a combined PET and MRI study
Hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava with azygous continuation presenting as recurrent leg deep vein thrombosis
Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and relation with blood flow: a magnetic resonance study with semiautomated cerebrospinal fluid segmentation
Oxidative injury to endothelial cells due to Epstein-Barr virus-induced autoantibodies against manganese superoxide dismutase
RETROGRADE JUGULAROGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF ABNORMALITIES OF THE SUPERIOR BULB OF THE INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
RETROGRADE VENOGRAPHY OF THE INTERNAL JUGULAR VEINS AND TRANSVERSE SINUSES; TECHNIQUE AND ROENTGEN ANATOMY
Microvascular abnormality in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: perfusion MR imaging findings in normal-appearing white matter
Physiology of cerebral venous blood flow: from experimental data in animals to normal function in humans
Pattern of hemodynamic impairment in multiple sclerosis: dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging at 3.0 T
Adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus-positive natural killer cell lines to cultured endothelial cells stimulated with inflammatory cytokines
Hypoperfusion of the cerebral white matter in multiple sclerosis: possible mechanisms and pathophysiological significance
Risk for multiple sclerosis in relatives and spouses of patients diagnosed with autoimmune and related conditions
White matter hemodynamic abnormalities precede sub-cortical gray matter changes in multiple sclerosis
Deep gray matter involvement on brain MRI scans is associated with clinical progression in multiple sclerosis
Can intrabodies targeted to the secretory compartment interact with a cytosolic protein? A comment on the article by Sawahata et al. "Cytoplasmic expression and specific binding of the VH/VL single domain intrabodies in transfected NIH3T3 cells", Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2008 Nov 27; Epub ahead of print
Ventricular assist device-associated anti-human leukocyte antigen antibody sensitization in pediatric patients bridged to heart transplantation
"Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" and multiple sclerosis: critical analysis and first observation in an unselected cohort of MS patients
Custom CGH array profiling of copy number variations (CNVs) on chromosome 6p21.32 (HLA locus) in patients with venous malformations associated with multiple sclerosis
The natural history and management of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Part 1: benign lesions
No association of abnormal cranial venous drainage with multiple sclerosis: a magnetic resonance venography and flow-quantification study
Regarding "no cerebrocervical venous congestion in patients with multiple sclerosis. Intraluminal jugular septation"
Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe commentary on the treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency
Cytokines present in smokers' serum interact with smoke components to enhance endothelial dysfunction
Vitamin D3 supplementation for 16 weeks improves flow-mediated dilation in overweight African-American adults
Hypoperfusion of brain parenchyma is associated with the severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional preliminary report
Value of MR venography for detection of internal jugular vein anomalies in multiple sclerosis: a pilot longitudinal study.
Smoking and increased risk of multiple sclerosis: parallel trends in the sex ratio reinforce the evidence
Safety profile of endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis
Proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency criteria do not predict multiple sclerosis risk or severity
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: diagnostic, pathogenetic, clinical and treatment perspectives
Association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis
Decreased brain venous vasculature visibility on susceptibility-weighted imaging venography in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: clinical correlates from a multicentre study
Why Current Doppler Ultrasound Methodology Is Inaccurate in Assessing Cerebral Venous Return: The Alternative of the Ultrasonic Jugular Venous Pulse
Cerebrovascular pattern improved by ozone autohemotherapy: an entropy-based study on multiple sclerosis patients
Meta-analysis of the correlation between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: a comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies
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