The polarization of the anterior-posterior axis (A-P) of the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote depends on the activity of the par genes and the presence of intact microfilaments. Functional links between the PAR proteins and the cytoskeleton, however, have not been fully explored. It has recently been shown that in mammalian cells, some PAR homologs form a complex with activated Cdc42, a Rho GTPase that is implicated in the control of actin organization and cellular polarity. A role for Cdc42 in the establishment of embryonic polarity in C. elegans has not been described. To investigate the function of Cdc42 in the control of cellular and embryonic polarity in C. elegans, we used RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to inhibit cdc-42 activity in the early embryo. Here, we demonstrate that RNAi of cdc-42 disrupts manifestations of polarity in the early embryo, that these phenotypes depend on par-2 and par-3 gene function, and that cdc-42 is required for the localization of the PAR proteins. Our genetic analysis of the regulatory relationships between cdc-42 and the par genes demonstrates that Cdc42 organizes embryonic polarity by controlling the localization and activity of the PAR proteins. Combined with the recent biochemical analysis...Continue Reading
An analysis of the role of microfilaments in the establishment and maintenance of asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes
Fluorescence visualization of the distribution of microfilaments in gonads and early embryos of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: the role of the genes par-2 and par-3.
par-1, a gene required for establishing polarity in C. elegans embryos, encodes a putative Ser/Thr kinase that is asymmetrically distributed
par-2, a gene required for blastomere asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes zinc-finger and ATP-binding motifs
Asymmetrically distributed PAR-3 protein contributes to cell polarity and spindle alignment in early C. elegans embryos
The Caenorhabditis elegans p21-activated kinase (CePAK) colocalizes with CeRac1 and CDC42Ce at hypodermal cell boundaries during embryo elongation.
Genetic requirements for PIE-1 localization and inhibition of gene expression in the embryonic germ lineage of Caenorhabditis elegans
An atypical PKC directly associates and colocalizes at the epithelial tight junction with ASIP, a mammalian homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans polarity protein PAR-3
The coronin-like protein POD-1 is required for anterior-posterior axis formation and cellular architecture in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans
Functional analysis of Cdc42 in actin filament assembly, epithelial morphogenesis, and cell signaling during Drosophila development
CYK-4: A Rho family gtpase activating protein (GAP) required for central spindle formation and cytokinesis
A human homolog of the C. elegans polarity determinant Par-6 links Rac and Cdc42 to PKCzeta signaling and cell transformation
Stimulation of erythropoiesis by inhibiting a new hematopoietic death receptor in transgenic zebrafish
Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of small GTPase protein Tscdc42 from Trichinella spiralis.
Expression and functional characterization of a Rho-family small GTPase CDC42 from Trichinella spiralis.
Multiple splice variants of Par3 and of a novel related gene, Par3L, produce proteins with different binding properties
Intercellular junctions and cellular polarity: the PAR-aPKC complex, a conserved core cassette playing fundamental roles in cell polarity
Sequential functioning of the ECT-2 RhoGEF, RHO-1 and CDC-42 establishes cell polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos
PAR-6 regulates aPKC activity in a novel way and mediates cell-cell contact-induced formation of the epithelial junctional complex
Regulation of membrane trafficking by a novel Cdc42-related protein in Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial cells
Gene targeting of Cdc42 and Cdc42GAP affirms the critical involvement of Cdc42 in filopodia induction, directed migration, and proliferation in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts
CGEF-1 and CHIN-1 regulate CDC-42 activity during asymmetric division in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.
RhoA activation during polarization and cytokinesis of the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is differentially dependent on NOP-1 and CYK-4.
The eggshell is required for meiotic fidelity, polar-body extrusion and polarization of the C. elegans embryo
Expression of P-aPKC-iota, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin related to invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma
A bow-tie genetic architecture for morphogenesis suggested by a genome-wide RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans
Synaptic polarity depends on phosphatidylinositol signaling regulated by myo-inositol monophosphatase in Caenorhabditis elegans.
The Rho GTPase-activating proteins RGA-3 and RGA-4 are required to set the initial size of PAR domains in Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryos
Specific deletion of Cdc42 does not affect meiotic spindle organization/migration and homologous chromosome segregation but disrupts polarity establishment and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes
Small GTPase CDC-42 promotes apoptotic cell corpse clearance in response to PAT-2 and CED-1 in C. elegans
Actomyosin regulation and symmetry breaking in a model of polarization in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo : symmetry breaking in cell polarization
Regulation of neural progenitor cell motility by ceramide and potential implications for mouse brain development.
Binding to PKC-3, but not to PAR-3 or to a conventional PDZ domain ligand, is required for PAR-6 function in C. elegans.
The disease-associated formin INF2/EXC-6 organizes lumen and cell outgrowth during tubulogenesis by regulating F-actin and microtubule cytoskeletons
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