Adhering cells actively probe the mechanical properties of their environment and use the resulting information to position and orient themselves. We show that a large body of experimental observations can be consistently explained from one unifying principle, namely that cells strengthen contacts and cytoskeleton in the direction of large effective stiffness. Using linear elasticity theory to model the extracellular environment, we calculate optimal cell organization for several situations of interest and find excellent agreement with experiments for fibroblasts, both on elastic substrates and in collagen gels: cells orient in the direction of external tensile strain; they orient parallel and normal to free and clamped surfaces, respectively; and they interact elastically to form strings. Our method can be applied for rational design of tissue equivalents. Moreover, our results indicate that the concept of contact guidance has to be reevaluated. We also suggest that cell-matrix contacts are up-regulated by large effective stiffness in the environment because, in this way, build-up of force is more efficient.
Production of a tissue-like structure by contraction of collagen lattices by human fibroblasts of different proliferative potential in vitro
Dynamic imaging of neutrophil migration in three dimensions: mechanical interactions between cells and matrix
An anisotropic biphasic theory of tissue-equivalent mechanics: the interplay among cell traction, fibrillar network deformation, fibril alignment, and cell contact guidance
Effect of precise mechanical loading on fibroblast populated collagen lattices: morphological changes
Force and focal adhesion assembly: a close relationship studied using elastic micropatterned substrates
Focal contacts as mechanosensors: externally applied local mechanical force induces growth of focal contacts by an mDia1-dependent and ROCK-independent mechanism
Calculation of forces at focal adhesions from elastic substrate data: the effect of localized force and the need for regularization
Confined compression of a tissue-equivalent: collagen fibril and cell alignment in response to anisotropic strain
Cell-surface interactions involving immobilized magnetite nanoparticles on flat magnetic substrates.
A collagen-based interface construct for the assessment of cell-dependent mechanical integration of tissue surfaces
Part I: A novel in-vitro system for simultaneous mechanical stimulation and time-lapse microscopy in 3D
Vascular smooth muscle cells remodel collagen matrices by long-distance action and anisotropic interaction.
On the modelling of biological patterns with mechanochemical models: Insights from analysis and computation
Adaptive changes in cardiac fibroblast morphology and collagen organization as a result of mechanical environment.
Cell adhesive behavior on thin polyelectrolyte multilayers: cells attempt to achieve homeostasis of its adhesion energy.
Quantitative characterization of the microstructure and transport properties of biopolymer networks.
Fluidization, resolidification, and reorientation of the endothelial cell in response to slow tidal stretches.
Influence of gold nanoparticles on collagen fibril morphology quantified using transmission electron microscopy and image analysis
Matrix elasticity, cytoskeletal forces and physics of the nucleus: how deeply do cells 'feel' outside and in?
Non-linear elasticity of extracellular matrices enables contractile cells to communicate local position and orientation.
Dynamic mechanisms of cell rigidity sensing: insights from a computational model of actomyosin networks
Polymer-tethered lipid multi-bilayers: a biomembrane-mimicking cell substrate to probe cellular mechano-sensing
Nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membrane proves suitability in a preclinical assessment for treatment of soft tissue defects
Myotubes differentiate optimally on substrates with tissue-like stiffness: pathological implications for soft or stiff microenvironments
A rotating bed system bioreactor enables cultivation of primary osteoblasts on well-characterized Sponceram regarding structural and flow properties
Adhesion Molecules in Health and Disease
Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here.