Subcellular asymmetry, cell polarity, is fundamental to the diverse specialized functions of eukaryotic cells. In yeast, cell polarization is essential to division and mating. As a result, this highly accessible experimental system serves as a paradigm for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of polarity. Beyond yeast, cell polarity is essential to the partitioning of cell fate in embryonic development, the generation of axons and their guidance during neuronal development, and the intimate communication between lymphocytes within the immune system. The polarization of yeast cells shares many features with that of these more complex examples, including regulation by both intrinsic and extrinsic cues, conserved regulatory molecules such as Cdc42 GTPase, and asymmetry of the cytoskeleton as its centerpiece. This review summarizes the molecular pathways governing the generation of cell polarity in yeast.
Asymmetry and directionality in production of new cell types during clonal growth: the switching pattern of homothallic yeast
Role of astral microtubules and actin in spindle orientation and migration in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Yeast RHO3 and RHO4 ras superfamily genes are necessary for bud growth, and their defect is suppressed by a high dose of bud formation genes CDC42 and BEM1.
Yeast BUD5, encoding a putative GDP-GTP exchange factor, is necessary for bud site selection and interacts with bud formation gene BEM1
Genetic control of bud site selection in yeast by a set of gene products that constitute a morphogenetic pathway
Effects of expression of mammalian G alpha and hybrid mammalian-yeast G alpha proteins on the yeast pheromone response signal transduction pathway.
CDC42 and CDC43, two additional genes involved in budding and the establishment of cell polarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The SPA2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for pheromone-induced morphogenesis and efficient mating
Multicopy suppression of the cdc24 budding defect in yeast by CDC42 and three newly identified genes including the ras-related gene RSR1
Localized secretion of acid phosphatase reflects the pattern of cell surface growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
A conserved binding motif defines numerous candidate target proteins for both Cdc42 and Rac GTPases.
Mutation of RGA1, which encodes a putative GTPase-activating protein for the polarity-establishment protein Cdc42p, activates the pheromone-response pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Actin-dependent mitochondrial motility in mitotic yeast and cell-free systems: identification of a motor activity on the mitochondrial surface
Ste20-like protein kinases are required for normal localization of cell growth and for cytokinesis in budding yeast
Association of the yeast pheromone response G protein beta gamma subunits with the MAP kinase scaffold Ste5p
Signal propagation and regulation in the mating pheromone response pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Interactions among proteins involved in bud-site selection and bud-site assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Actin cytoskeleton and budding pattern are altered in the yeast rvs161 mutant: the Rvs161 protein shares common domains with the brain protein amphiphysin
Purification of a cortical complex containing two unconventional actins from Acanthamoeba by affinity chromatography on profilin-agarose
A yeast gene necessary for bud-site selection encodes a protein similar to insulin-degrading enzymes
Subcellular localization of Cdc42p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae GTP-binding protein involved in the control of cell polarity
Growth site localization of Rho1 small GTP-binding protein and its involvement in bud formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
BUD2 encodes a GTPase-activating protein for Bud1/Rsr1 necessary for proper bud-site selection in yeast
The LIM domain-containing Dbm1 GTPase-activating protein is required for normal cellular morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Genetic analysis of the bipolar pattern of bud site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The BUD4 protein of yeast, required for axial budding, is localized to the mother/BUD neck in a cell cycle-dependent manner
Identification of the bud emergence gene BEM4 and its interactions with rho-type GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ROM7/BEM4 encodes a novel protein that interacts with the Rho1p small GTP-binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Rac and Cdc42 induce actin polymerization and G1 cell cycle progression independently of p65PAK and the JNK/SAPK MAP kinase cascade
Pea2 protein of yeast is localized to sites of polarized growth and is required for efficient mating and bipolar budding
Bee1, a yeast protein with homology to Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein, is critical for the assembly of cortical actin cytoskeleton
The yeast phosphatidylinositol kinase homolog TOR2 activates RHO1 and RHO2 via the exchange factor ROM2
Two active states of the Ras-related Bud1/Rsr1 protein bind to different effectors to determine yeast cell polarity
High rates of actin filament turnover in budding yeast and roles for actin in establishment and maintenance of cell polarity revealed using the actin inhibitor latrunculin-A
Bni1p and Bnr1p: downstream targets of the Rho family small G-proteins which interact with profilin and regulate actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Nedd5, a mammalian septin, is a novel cytoskeletal component interacting with actin-based structures
The complex containing actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 is required for the motility and integrity of yeast actin patches
Association of the Rho family small GTP-binding proteins with Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (Rho GDI) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Microtubules orient the mitotic spindle in yeast through dynein-dependent interactions with the cell cortex
The Rho-GEF Rom2p localizes to sites of polarized cell growth and participates in cytoskeletal functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Astral microtubule dynamics in yeast: a microtubule-based searching mechanism for spindle orientation and nuclear migration into the bud
The Cdc42 GTPase-associated proteins Gic1 and Gic2 are required for polarized cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Actin-binding verprolin is a polarity development protein required for the morphogenesis and function of the yeast actin cytoskeleton
Interaction of a G-protein beta-subunit with a conserved sequence in Ste20/PAK family protein kinases
Sequential assembly of myosin II, an IQGAP-like protein, and filamentous actin to a ring structure involved in budding yeast cytokinesis
Corequirement of specific phosphoinositides and small GTP-binding protein Cdc42 in inducing actin assembly in Xenopus egg extracts
Membrane recruitment of the kinase cascade scaffold protein Ste5 by the Gbetagamma complex underlies activation of the yeast pheromone response pathway
Polymerization of purified yeast septins: evidence that organized filament arrays may not be required for septin function
The role of Far1p in linking the heterotrimeric G protein to polarity establishment proteins during yeast mating
Tropomyosin-containing actin cables direct the Myo2p-dependent polarized delivery of secretory vesicles in budding yeast
Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex
Rho3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton and exocytosis, is a GTPase which interacts with Myo2 and Exo70.
The interaction between N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex links Cdc42-dependent signals to actin assembly
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein directs actin-based motility by stimulating actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex
Healing of mat mutations and control of mating type interconversion by the mating type locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Human homologues of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell polarity protein PAR6 as an adaptor that links the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C
Solution structure of a novel Cdc42 binding module of Bem1 and its interaction with Ste20 and Cdc42.
Mutational analysis suggests that activation of the yeast pheromone response mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway involves conformational changes in the Ste5 scaffold protein
Schizosaccharomyces pombe rho2p GTPase regulates cell wall alpha-glucan biosynthesis through the protein kinase pck2p
Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fol1 protein: starvation for C1 carrier induces pseudohyphal growth
The PXL1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a paxillin-like protein functioning in polarized cell growth
Cell polarity protein Spa2P associates with proteins involved in actin function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Sequential and distinct roles of the cadherin domain-containing protein Axl2p in cell polarization in yeast cell cycle
Distinct domains of yeast cortical tag proteins Bud8p and Bud9p confer polar localization and functionality
Distinct roles for two Galpha-Gbeta interfaces in cell polarity control by a yeast heterotrimeric G protein
Cbk1p, a protein similar to the human myotonic dystrophy kinase, is essential for normal morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
A positive feedback loop stabilizes the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Cdc24 at sites of polarization
Dividing cellular asymmetry: asymmetric cell division and its implications for stem cells and cancer
Effects of low-shear modeled microgravity on cell function, gene expression, and phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Afr1 protein is a protein phosphatase 1/Glc7-targeting subunit that regulates the septin cytoskeleton during mating
Isolation and characterization of YlBEM1, a gene required for cell polarization and differentiation in the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
The Glc7p-interacting protein Bud14p attenuates polarized growth, pheromone response, and filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
mRNAs encoding polarity and exocytosis factors are cotransported with the cortical endoplasmic reticulum to the incipient bud in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Far3 and five interacting proteins prevent premature recovery from pheromone arrest in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The genetic interaction network of CCW12, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for cell wall integrity during budding and formation of mating projections
Protein kinase Czeta and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta control neuronal polarity in developing rodent enteric neurons, whereas SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 promotes neurite growth but does not influence polarity
The putative lipid transporter, Arv1, is required for activating pheromone-induced MAP kinase signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The role of cell cycle-regulated expression in the localization of spatial landmark proteins in yeast
Roles of fission yeast tea1p in the localization of polarity factors and in organizing the microtubular cytoskeleton
Mum, this bud's for you: where do you want it? Roles for Cdc42 in controlling bud site selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Morphogenetic and developmental functions of the Aspergillus nidulans homologues of the yeast bud site selection proteins Bud4 and Axl2
Pheromone responsiveness is regulated by components of the Gpr1p-mediated glucose sensing pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Pod-2, along with pod-1, defines a new class of genes required for polarity in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo
Sequential roles of Cdc42, Par-6, aPKC, and Lgl in the establishment of epithelial polarity during Drosophila embryogenesis
A system of counteracting feedback loops regulates Cdc42p activity during spontaneous cell polarization
Heterotrimeric G proteins direct two modes of asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila nervous system
Mechanisms of implantation in the mouse: differentiation and functional importance of trophoblast giant cell behavior
Fungal Pls1 tetraspanins as key factors of penetration into host plants: a role in re-establishing polarized growth in the appressorium?
The sensing of nutritional status and the relationship to filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides RhoB regulates cAMP and stress response pathways and is required for pathogenesis
Rga5p is a specific Rho1p GTPase-activating protein that regulates cell integrity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe
The machinery for cell polarity, cell morphogenesis, and the cytoskeleton in the Basidiomycete fungus Ustilago maydis-a survey of the genome sequence
Vesicle trafficking dynamics and visualization of zones of exocytosis and endocytosis in tobacco pollen tubes
N-acetylcysteine potentiates diclofenac toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: stronger potentiation in ABC transporter mutant strains
Cytoskeleton in regenerating protoplasts and restoration of cell polarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The anillin-related region of Bud4 is the major functional determinant for Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and axial bud site selection in budding yeast
Combinatorial impact of osmotic and heat shocks on the composition of membrane lipids and osmolytes in Aspergillus niger
Sensing, signalling and integrating physical processes during Saccharomyces cerevisiae invasive and filamentous growth
Centrosome Aurora A regulates RhoGEF ECT-2 localisation and ensures a single PAR-2 polarity axis in C. elegans embryos
A two-tiered mechanism by which Cdc42 controls the localization and activation of an Arp2/3-activating motor complex in yeast
Functional characterization of Aspergillus nidulans homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spa2 and Bud6
The Rap1-cofilin-1 pathway coordinates actin reorganization and MTOC polarization at the B cell immune synapse
Establishment of tetracycline-regulated bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to detect protein-protein interactions in Candida albicans.
Swm1p subunit of the APC/cyclosome is required for activation of the daughter-specific gene expression program mediated by Ace2p during growth at high temperature in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Mdy2, a ubiquitin-like (UBL)-domain protein, is required for efficient mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Bem3, a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein, traffics to an intracellular compartment and recruits the secretory Rab GTPase Sec4 to endomembranes
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