Local protein synthesis in mature axons may play a role in synaptic plasticity, axonal arborization, or functional diversity of the circuit. To gain insight into this question, we investigated the axonal localization of translational regulators and associated mRNAs in five parallel olfactory circuits, four in the main olfactory bulb and one in the accessory olfactory bulb. Axons in all four main olfactory bulb circuits exhibited axonal localization of Fragile X granules (FXGs), structures that comprise ribosomes, mRNA, and RNA binding proteins including Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and the related protein FXR2P. In contrast, FXGs were not seen in axons innervating the accessory olfactory bulb. Similarly, axons innervating the main olfactory bulb, but not the accessory olfactory bulb, contained the FXG-associated mRNA Omp (olfactory marker protein). This differential localization was not explained by circuit-dependent differences in expression of FXG components or Omp, suggesting that other factors must regulate their axonal transport. The specificity of this transport was highlighted by the absence from olfactory axons of the calmodulin transcript Calm1, which is highly expressed in peripheral olfactory neurons a...Continue Reading
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Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Brain
Cell adhesion molecules found on cell surface help cells bind with other cells or the extracellular matrix to maintain structure and function. Here is the latest research on their role in the brain.