May 1, 1980

Cellular differentiation, cytidine analogs and DNA methylation

Peter A Jones, S M Taylor


The nucleoside analog 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) induced marked changes in the differentiated state of cultured mouse embryo cells and also inhibited the methylation of newly synthesized DNA. The DNA strand containing 5-aza-CR remained undermethylated in the round of DNA synthesis following analog incorporation. The extent of inhibition of DNA modification and induction of muscle cells in treated cultures were dependent on the 5-aza-CR concentration over a narrow dose range. Experiments with the restriction enzyme Hpa II, which is sensitive to cytosine methylation in the sequence CCGG, demonstrated that the DNA synthesized in 5-aza-CR-treated cultures was maximally undermethylated 48 hr after treatment. Three other analogs of cytidine, containing a modification in the 5 position of the pyrimidine ring [5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine(5-aza-CdR), pseudoisocytidine (psi ICR) and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine(FCdR)] also induced the formation of muscle cells and inhibited DNA methylation. In contrast, 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC) and 6-azacytidine (6-aza-CR) did not inhibit DNA methylation or induce muscle formation, whereas 5-6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (dH-aza-CR) was a poor inducer of muscle cells and a poor inhibitor of DNA methylati...Continue Reading

  • References21
  • Citations810

Mentioned in this Paper

DNA Methylation [PE]
Nucleoside Analogs
Fat Pad
DNA Modification Process
Protein Methylation
Structure-Activity Relationship

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.