May 25, 2012

Cellular mechanisms of γ-secretase substrate selection, processing and toxicity

Progress in Neurobiology
Gael BarthetN K Robakis

Abstract

Presenilins (PSs) are catalytic components of the γ-secretase proteolytic complexes that produce Aβ and cell signaling peptides. γ-Secretase substrates are mostly membrane-bound peptides derived following proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain of type I transmembrane proteins. Recent work reveals that γ-secretase substrate processing is regulated by proteins termed γ-secretase substrate recruiting factors (γSSRFs) that bridge substrates to γ-secretase complexes. These factors constitute novel targets for pharmacological control of specific γ-secretase products, such as Aβ and signaling peptides. PS familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutants cause a loss of γ-secretase cleavage function at epsilon sites of substrates thus inhibiting production of cell signaling peptides while promoting accumulation of uncleaved toxic substrates. Importantly, γ-secretase inhibitors may cause toxicity in vivo by similar mechanisms. Here we review novel mechanisms that control γ-secretase substrate selection and cleavage and examine their relevance to AD.

  • References80
  • Citations17

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

TMED10 gene
Establishment and Maintenance of Localization
Presenilins
Familial Alzheimer Disease (FAD)
Biochemical Pathway
Calcium [EPC]
Activation-induced Cell Death of T Cells
KCNIP3 gene
Derivatives
Kv Channel-Interacting Protein 3

Related Feeds

Adherens Junctions

An adherens junction is defined as a cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. They can appear as bands encircling the cell (zonula adherens) or as spots of attachment to the extracellular matrix (adhesion plaques). Adherens junctions uniquely disassemble in uterine epithelial cells to allow the blastocyst to penetrate between epithelial cells. Discover the latest research on adherens junctions here.

Alzheimer's Disease: APP

Amyloid precursor protein proteolysis is critical for the development of Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disease associated with accumulation of amyloid plaques. Here is the latest research.

Alzheimer's Disease: Endosomes

The feed focuses on the role of dysfunctional endosomal trafficking in Alzheimer’s Disease and the potential for targeting the endosome as a therapeutic target.

Alzheimer's Disease: Transcription

Transcription involves copying (transcribing) the gene's DNA sequence into RNA. Impaired transcription is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to transcription and this disease.

Birth Defects

Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.

Adhesion Molecules in Health and Disease

Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here.

Cadherins and Catenins

Cadherins (named for "calcium-dependent adhesion") are a type of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) that is important in the formation of adherens junctions to bind cells with each other. Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells: alpha-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. β-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Discover the latest research on cadherins and catenins here.

Alzheimer's Disease: Abeta

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease associated with accumulation of amyloid plaques, which are comprised of amyloid beta. Here is the latest research in this field.

Calcium & Bioenergetics

Bioenergetic processes, including cellular respiration and photosynthesis, concern the transformation of energy by cells. Here is the latest research on the role of calcium in bioenergetics.