Mar 3, 2020

Cellular Senescence in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Carmen Martínez-Cué, Noemí Rueda

Abstract

Cellular senescence is a homeostatic biological process characterized by a permanent state of cell cycle arrest that can contribute to the decline of the regenerative potential and function of tissues. The increased presence of senescent cells in different neurodegenerative diseases suggests the contribution of senescence in the pathophysiology of these disorders. Although several factors can induce senescence, DNA damage, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and altered proteostasis have been shown to play a role in its onset. Oxidative stress contributes to accelerated aging and cognitive dysfunction stages affecting neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, connectivity, and survival. During later life stages, it is implicated in the progression of cognitive decline, synapse loss, and neuronal degeneration. Also, neuroinflammation exacerbates oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal death through the harmful effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on cell proliferation and maturation. Both oxidative stress and neuroinflammation can induce DNA damage and alterations in DNA repair that, in turn, can exacerbate them. Another important feature associated with senescence is altered proteostasis. Because of the disruption ...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Parkinson Disease
Inflammation
MRNA Maturation
Impaired Cognition
DNA Damage
Literature
LIMS1 gene
Neurogenesis
Alzheimer's Disease
Disease Progression

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