Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Georg NagelE Bamberg

Abstract

Microbial-type rhodopsins are found in archaea, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Some of them represent membrane ion transport proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, a light-driven proton pump, or channelrhodopsin-1 (ChR1), a recently identified light-gated proton channel from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ChR1 and ChR2, a related microbial-type rhodopsin from C. reinhardtii, were shown to be involved in generation of photocurrents of this green alga. We demonstrate by functional expression, both in oocytes of Xenopus laevis and mammalian cells, that ChR2 is a directly light-switched cation-selective ion channel. This channel opens rapidly after absorption of a photon to generate a large permeability for monovalent and divalent cations. ChR2 desensitizes in continuous light to a smaller steady-state conductance. Recovery from desensitization is accelerated by extracellular H+ and negative membrane potential, whereas closing of the ChR2 ion channel is decelerated by intracellular H+. ChR2 is expressed mainly in C. reinhardtii under low-light conditions, suggesting involvement in photoreception in dark-adapted cells. The predicted seven-transmembrane alpha helices of ChR2 are characteristic for G protein-coupled receptors bu...Continue Reading

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Dec 1, 2004·Annual Review of Genetics·Arthur R GrossmanChung Soon Im
Jul 2, 2015·Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility·Werend BoesmansPieter Vanden Berghe
Jun 1, 2011·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Mathias Grote, Maureen A O'Malley
Jun 23, 2015·Nature Biotechnology·Udi Nussinovitch, Lior Gepstein
Jul 3, 2015·Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences·Thea Ziegler, Andreas Möglich
Apr 16, 2015·Cell and Tissue Research·C Wichmann, Tobias Moser
Apr 3, 2015·International Neurourology Journal·Jee Woong LeeYoonkey Nam
Jun 23, 2015·Annual Review of Biophysics·Franziska SchneiderPeter Hegemann
Jan 15, 2015·Cardiovascular Research·Christoph C VogtPhilipp Sasse
Sep 29, 2015·Journal of Modern Optics·Samarendra K Mohanty, Vasudevan Lakshminarayananan
Mar 21, 2012·Molecular Plant·John M ChristieAndrew J Roe
Feb 15, 2015·Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine·Cristina Soto-SánchezEduardo Fernández
May 7, 2013·Cell Reports·Dmitrij LjaschenkoRobert J Kittel
Apr 20, 2016·Journal of Neuroscience Research·Vinícius Rosa CotaMárcio Flávio Dutra Moraes
Jul 13, 2011·Neuron·Ofer YizharKarl Deisseroth
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Sep 18, 2013·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Akihisa Terakita
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Apr 23, 2015·Biophysical Journal·John C Williams, Emilia Entcheva
Mar 25, 2015·Trends in Neurosciences·Eliot A Brenowitz, Harold H Zakon
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May 25, 2007·Neuron·Stephanie SzobotaEhud Y Isacoff
Mar 18, 2008·Neuron·Liqun LuoKarel Svoboda
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Sep 29, 2011·Neuron·Alexander Borst, Thomas Euler
Jul 31, 2012·Neuron·Aleksandra PolosukhinaRichard H Kramer
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Sep 29, 2009·Current Opinion in Neurobiology·Herwig Baier, Ethan K Scott
Oct 16, 2009·Current Opinion in Neurobiology·Richard H KramerDirk Trauner
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Jan 21, 2015·Hearing Research·Marcus Jeschke, Tobias Moser
Feb 26, 2015·ELife·Jeremiah Y CohenNaoshige Uchida
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Sep 24, 2013·Trends in Neurosciences·Andreas Reiner, Ehud Y Isacoff
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Oct 29, 2013·Journal of Insect Physiology·Chihiro Sato MatsumotoHiroto Ogawa
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Feb 28, 2013·Biophysical Journal·Oleg A SineshchekovJohn L Spudich
Feb 28, 2013·Biophysical Journal·Leonid S Brown
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Aug 1, 2014·Frontiers in Neuroengineering·Song LuanTimothy G Constandinou
Aug 8, 2014·Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience·Aya YanagawaFrédéric Marion-Poll
Nov 28, 2014·Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience·Jeremy PetraviczKen D McCarthy
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Jul 26, 2016·Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience·Jung-Hwa Hong, Mikyoung Park
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Sep 24, 2016·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Shintaro NakamuraMakoto Demura
Jan 15, 2008·Drug Discovery Today·Elena Molokanova, Alex Savchenko
Nov 2, 2016·Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience·Rossella ContiValentina Emiliani
Nov 3, 2016·Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience·Emmanuelle ChaigneauValentina Emiliani
May 14, 2014·Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy·Hiroshi TomitaMakoto Tamai
Sep 24, 2016·IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems·Xiaopeng BiWen Li
Oct 22, 2016·PloS One·Katrin FeldbauerUlrich Terpitz
Jan 10, 2016·Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism·Risa TamuraMasashi Nibuya
Nov 13, 2015·Perception·Fumi Okuyama-Uchimura, Shoji Komai
Mar 31, 2016·The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society·Aron KosArmaz Aschrafi
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Aug 20, 2016·IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems·Fu-Yu Beverly ChenPeter S Freestone
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Apr 24, 2016·Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism·Thijs HoubenElse A Tolner
Feb 3, 2017·Cold Spring Harbor Protocols·J Simon WiegertThomas G Oertner
Feb 18, 2017·IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems·Ahmed SoltanPatrick Degenaar
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Apr 6, 2017·Cerebral Cortex·Jingcheng LiXiaowei Chen
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Nov 17, 2015·Scientific Reports·Jinzhu YuEmilia Entcheva
Jun 17, 2015·Scientific Reports·Kazuto Masamoto