Apr 26, 2020

HIV Vpr modulates the host DNA damage response at two independent steps to damage DNA and repress double-strand DNA break repair

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
O LiOliver I Fregoso

Abstract

The DNA damage response (DDR) is a signaling cascade that is vital to ensuring the fidelity of the host genome in the presence of genotoxic stress. Growing evidence has emphasized the importance of both activation and repression of the host DDR by diverse DNA and RNA viruses. Previous work has shown that HIV-1 is also capable of engaging the host DDR, primarily through the conserved accessory protein Vpr. However, the extent of this engagement has remained unclear. Here we show that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vpr directly induce DNA damage and stall DNA replication, leading to the activation of several markers of double- and single-strand DNA breaks. Despite causing damage and activating the DDR, we found that Vpr repress the repair of double-strand breaks (DSB) by inhibiting homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Mutational analyses of Vpr revealed that DNA damage and DDR activation are independent from repression of HR and Vpr-mediated cell-cycle arrest. Moreover, we show that repression of HR does not require cell-cycle arrest but instead may precede this long-standing enigmatic Vpr phenotype. Together, our data uncover that Vpr globally modulates the host DDR at at least two independent steps; offering no...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Size
Species
Analysis
Amaranth Dye
Erythrocytes
Parasites
Oscillations
Biological Evolution

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