Characterization of Foodborne Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis with Whole-Genome Sequencing Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Analysis for Surveillance and Outbreak Detection
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness in the United States; however, current molecular subtyping methods lack resolution for this highly clonal serovar. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to examine whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a potential molecular subtyping tool for outbreak detection and source trace back. Here, we conducted a retrospective analysis of S. Enteritidis isolates from seven epidemiologically confirmed foodborne outbreaks and sporadic isolates (not epidemiologically linked) to determine the utility of WGS to identify outbreaks. A collection of 55 epidemiologically characterized clinical and environmental S. Enteritidis isolates were sequenced. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based cluster analysis of the S. Enteritidis genomes revealed well supported clades, with less than four-SNP pairwise diversity, that were concordant with epidemiologically defined outbreaks. Sporadic isolates were an average of 42.5 SNPs distant from the outbreak clusters. Isolates collected from the same patient over several weeks differed by only two SNPs. Our findings show that WGS provided greater resolution between outbreak, sporadic, an...Continue Reading
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