Characterizing the self-system over time in adolescence: internal structure and associations with internalizing symptoms.

Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Seth J SchwartzWim Meeus


The longitudinal effects among self and identity processes, and between these processes and internalizing symptoms, are not well understood. As a result, the present study was designed to ascertain the over-time effects among identity commitment, reconsideration of commitments, and self-concept clarity, as well as to map the interplay of these self and identity processes with anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. A sample of 923 Dutch adolescents (mean age 12.4 years at Time 1; 49.3% female) participated at each of five annual assessments. Multivariate growth curve and cross-lagged panel models indicated that the association between self-concept clarity and commitment was bidirectional, that reconsideration occurs based on problems or dissatisfaction with self-concept clarity and with identity commitments, and that self-concept clarity (but not commitment or reconsideration) temporally precedes depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of the structure of the self-system and its associations with internalizing symptoms.


May 1, 1966·Journal of Personality and Social Psychology·J E Marcia
Jun 1, 1980·The Journal of Genetic Psychology·G W Mercer, P M Kohn
Apr 1, 1997·Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry·B BirmaherS M Neer
Jun 4, 1999·The American Psychologist·J J Arnett
Feb 25, 2003·Journal of Personality·Jennifer D CampbellAdam Di Paula
Oct 1, 2003·The Journal of Applied Psychology·Philip M PodsakoffNathan P Podsakoff
Feb 24, 2005·Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry·William W HaleWim Meeus
May 25, 2006·Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association·Rod K DishmanRussell R Pate
Aug 17, 2006·The Journal of Early Adolescence·Seth J SchwartzJosé Szapocznik
Mar 22, 2008·Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry·William W HaleWim Meeus
Feb 12, 2009·Journal of Personality Assessment·Seth J SchwartzJanine V Olthuis
Jun 6, 2009·Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines·F V A Van OortA C Huizink
Jul 29, 2009·Journal of Youth and Adolescence·Elisabetta CrocettiWim Meeus
Dec 25, 2009·The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology·Jing-Heng Cai, Xin-Yuan Song
Jan 20, 2010·Journal of Youth and Adolescence·Theo A KlimstraWim H J Meeus
Jun 23, 2010·Journal of Personality and Social Psychology·Theo A KlimstraWim H J Meeus
Jul 29, 2010·Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines·William W HaleWim H J Meeus
Aug 31, 2010·Behaviour Research and Therapy·Lusia StopaColette R Hirsch
Sep 25, 2010·The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine·Thulitha Wickrama, K A S Wickrama

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Dec 19, 2015·Journal of Adolescence·Eleonora Ioana PopWim Meeus
Dec 12, 2012·New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development·Theo A KlimstraWim H J Meeus
Jan 20, 2018·Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin·Guy ItzchakovYaara Turjeman-Levi
Apr 24, 2018·Journal of Research on Adolescence : the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence·Jason E GoldstickMarc A Zimmerman
Jun 6, 2017·Journal of Research on Adolescence : the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence·Theo A KlimstraWim H J Meeus
Jul 25, 2019·Annual Review of Psychology·Eveline A Crone, Andrew J Fuligni
Oct 4, 2021·Journal of Personality·Nicole Maria ThomasDirk Kranz

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