Chemical synthesis and in vivo hyperexpression of a modular gene coding for Escherichia coli translational initiation factor IF1

Molecular & General Genetics : MGG
R A CalogeroC O Gualerzi


An artificial gene encoding the Escherichia coli translational initiation factor IF1 was synthesized based on the primary structure (71 amino acid residues) of the protein. Codons for individual amino acids were selected on the basis of the preferred codon usage found in the structural genes for the initiation factor IF2 of E. coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus, both of which can be expressed at high levels in E. coli cells. We gave the IF1 gene a modular structure by introducing specific restriction enzyme sites into the sequence, resulting in units of three to ten codons. This was conceived to facilitate site-directed mutagenesis of the gene and thus to obtain IF1 with specific amino acid alterations at desired positions. The IF1 gene was assembled by shot-gun ligation of 9 synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides ranging in size from 31 to 65 nucleotides and cloned into an expression vector to place the gene under the control of an inducible promoter. Upon induction, E. coli cells harbouring the artificial gene were found to produce large amounts (greater than or equal to 60 mg/100 g cells) of a protein indistinguishable from natural IF1 in both chemical and biological properties.


Dec 1, 1977·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·F SangerA R Coulson
Jan 1, 1979·Methods in Enzymology·E L BrownH G Khorana
Apr 4, 1978·Biochemistry·H J FritzH G Khorana
Apr 25, 1985·Nucleic Acids Research·B S Sproat, M J Gait
Apr 1, 1974·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J Shine, L Dalgarno
Feb 1, 1971·European Journal of Biochemistry·S Lee-HuangS Ochoa
Dec 1, 1984·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·C SacerdotM Grunberg-Manago
Jan 1, 1980·Methods in Enzymology·A J Smith
Jan 1, 1980·Molecular & General Genetics : MGG·P H O'FarrellM Nakanishi
Aug 11, 1982·Nucleic Acids Research·J SmithL D Bell


Aug 6, 2003·Journal of Molecular Biology·D PetrelliAnna La Teana
Aug 6, 2003·Journal of Molecular Biology·Claudio O GualerziCynthia L Pon
Sep 1, 1988·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·R A CalogeroClaudio O Gualerzi
Aug 14, 2001·The EMBO Journal·D PetrelliClaudio O Gualerzi
Jan 20, 2004·RNA·Anna M GiuliodoriCynthia L Pon
Jun 22, 2000·Journal of Molecular Biology·K D Dahlquist, J D Puglisi
Jun 3, 2017·Nucleic Acids Research·He ChengguangClaudio O Gualerzi

Related Concepts

DNA Sequence
DNA, Bacterial
Alkalescens-Dispar Group
Genes, Bacterial
Synthetic Genes
Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational
Gene Products, Protein
Structure-Activity Relationship
Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Femoral Neoplasms

Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.