PMID: 10563973Nov 24, 1999Paper

Chemistry, biochemistry, nutrition, and microbiology of lysinoalanine, lanthionine, and histidinoalanine in food and other proteins

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
M Friedman


Heat and alkali treatments of foods, widely used in food processing, result in the formation of dehydro and cross-linked amino acids such as dehydroalanine, methyldehydroalanine, beta-aminoalanine, lysinoalanine (LAL), ornithinoalanine, histidinoalanine (HAL), phenylethylaminoalanine, lanthionine (LAN), and methyl-lanthionine present in proteins and are frequently accompanied by concurrent racemization of L-amino acid isomers to D-analogues. The mechanism of LAL formation is a two-step process: first, hydroxide ion-catalyzed elimination of H(2)S from cystine and H(2)O, phosphate, and glycosidic moieties from serine residues to yield a dehydroalanine intermediate; second, reaction of the double bond of dehydroalanine with the epsilon-NH(2) group of lysine to form LAL. Analogous elimination-addition reactions are postulated to produce the other unusual amino acids. Processing conditions that favor these transformations include high pH, temperature, and exposure time. Factors that minimize LAL formation include the presence of SH-containing amino acids, sodium sulfite, ammonia, biogenic amines, ascorbic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and glucose; dephosphorylation of O-phosphoryl esters; and acylation of epsilon-NH(2) groups of ly...Continue Reading


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