ChIPulate: A comprehensive ChIP-seq simulation pipeline

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Vishaka DattaRahul Siddharthan

Abstract

ChIP-seq (Chromatin Immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing) is a high-throughput technique to identify genomic regions that are bound in vivo by a particular protein, e.g., a transcription factor (TF). Biological factors, such as chromatin state, indirect and cooperative binding, as well as experimental factors, such as antibody quality, cross-linking, and PCR biases, are known to affect the outcome of ChIP-seq experiments. However, the relative impact of these factors on inferences made from ChIP-seq data is not entirely clear. Here, via a detailed ChIP-seq simulation pipeline, ChIPulate, we assess the impact of various biological and experimental sources of variation on several outcomes of a ChIP-seq experiment, viz., the recoverability of the TF binding motif, accuracy of TF-DNA binding detection, the sensitivity of inferred TF-DNA binding strength, and number of replicates needed to confidently infer binding strength. We find that the TF motif can be recovered despite poor and non-uniform extraction and PCR amplification efficiencies. The recovery of the motif is however affected to a larger extent by the fraction of sites that are either cooperatively or indirectly bound. Importantly, our simulations reveal that the nu...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Chromatin
DNA-Binding Proteins
Genome
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Transcription Factor
Extraction
Site
Simulation
Inference
DNA Amplification

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