May 1, 2020

Neuronal Hyperexcitability is a DLK-dependent Trigger of HSV-1 Reactivation that can be Induced by IL-1

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
S. R. CuddyAnna Ruth Cliffe

Abstract

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) establishes a latent infection in neurons and periodically reactivates to cause disease. The neuronal stimuli that trigger HSV reactivation have not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that HSV reactivation can be induced by neuronal hyperexcitability. Neuronal stimulation-induced reactivation was dependent on voltage-gated ion and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, demonstrating that neuronal activity is required for reactivation. Hyperexcitability-induced reactivation was dependent on the neuronal pathway of DLK/JNK activation and progressed via an initial wave of viral gene expression that was independent of histone demethylase activity and linked to histone phosphorylation. IL-1 induces neuronal hyperexcitability and is released under conditions of stress and fever; both known triggers of clinical HSV reactivation. IL-1 induced histone phosphorylation in sympathetic neurons, and importantly HSV reactivation, which was dependent on DLK and neuronal excitability. Thus, HSV co-opts an innate immune pathway resulting from IL-1 stimulation of neurons to induce reactivation.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Drug Carriers
Research
Drug Delivery Systems
Epoetin Alfa
Immunologic Adjuvants
Class crustacea
Erythropoietin Measurement
Nanoparticle Type
Uptake

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