Jul 22, 2018

Cholera toxin inhibits SNX27-retromer-mediated delivery of cargo proteins to the plasma membrane

Journal of Cell Science
Varsha SinghMark Donowitz


Cholera toxin (CT) causes severe diarrhea by increasing intracellular cAMP leading to a PKA-dependent increase in Cl- secretion through CFTR and decreased Na+ absorption through inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3; also known as SLC9A3). The mechanism(s) by which CT inhibits NHE3 is partially understood, although no drug therapy has been successful at reversing this inhibition. We now describe that CT phosphorylates an amino acid in the PDZ domain of SNX27, which inhibits SNX27-mediated trafficking of NHE3 from the early endosomes to the plasma membrane (PM), and contributes to reduced basal NHE3 activity through a mechanism that involves reduced PM expression and reduced endocytic recycling. Importantly, mutagenesis studies (Ser to Asp) showed that the effect of this phosphorylation of SNX27 phenocopies the effects seen upon loss of SNX27 function, affecting PM trafficking of cargo proteins that bind SNX27-retromer. Additionally, CT destabilizes retromer function by decreasing the amount of core retromer proteins. These effects of CT can be partially rescued by enhancing retromer stability by using 'pharmacological chaperones'. Moreover, pharmacological chaperones can be used to increase basal and cholera toxin-inhibited NH...Continue Reading

  • References54
  • Citations


  • This paper may not have been cited yet.

Mentioned in this Paper

SNX27 gene
HEK293 Cells
Squamous Transitional Epithelial Cell Count
Receptor Down-Regulation
Protein Phosphorylation
Sorting Nexins

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.