Acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to modulate neuronal differentiation during early development. Both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) regulate a wide variety of physiological responses, including apoptosis, cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation. However, the intracellular mechanisms underlying these effects of AChR signaling are not fully understood. It is known that activation of AChRs increase cellular proliferation and neurogenesis and that regulation of intracellular calcium through AChRs may underlie the many functions of ACh. Intriguingly, activation of diverse signaling molecules such as Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt, protein kinase C and c-Src is modulated by AChRs. Here we discuss the roles of ACh in neuronal differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. We also discuss the pathways involved in these processes, as well as the effects of novel endogenous AChRs agonists and strategies to enhance neuronal-differentiation of stem and neural progenitor cells. Further understanding of the intracellular mechanisms underlying AChR signaling may provide insights for novel therapeutic strategies, as abnormal AChR activity is present in many di...Continue Reading
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G-protein-coupled receptor genes as protooncogenes: constitutively activating mutation of the alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor enhances mitogenesis and tumorigenicity
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Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates phosphorylation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat myotubes
Cell type specific, receptor-mediated modulation of growth kinetics in human lung cancer cell lines by nicotine and tobacco-related nitrosamines
Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and subunit mRNA transcripts in cultures of neural crest cells
Pertussis toxin-sensitive activation of p21ras by G protein-coupled receptor agonists in fibroblasts
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Acetylcholine muscarinic m1 receptor regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis controls growth factor stimulation of Raf activity.
Regulation of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in small cell lung carcinoma
Effects of nicotine on proliferation and extracellular matrix production of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro
Comparative ontogenic profile of cholinergic markers, including nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, in the rat brain
Selective immunolesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic system disrupts short-term memory in rats
Rho family GTPases and neuronal growth cone remodelling: relationship between increased complexity induced by Cdc42Hs, Rac1, and acetylcholine and collapse induced by RhoA and lysophosphatidic acid.
Antiapoptotic signalling by the insulin-like growth factor I receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Akt.
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Chronic nicotine treatment up-regulates alpha3 and alpha7 acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed by the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y
Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in the human hippocampal formation during development and aging
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Nicotine enhances the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of alpha4 subunits of neuronal nicotinic receptors
Functional components of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal transduction in pituitary cells. Identification of FGF response elements in the prolactin gene.
Regulation of secretion of Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein by the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade
Regulation of the association of adducin with actin filaments by Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase) and myosin phosphatase.
Calcium-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation mediates the angiotensin II-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Angiotensin II stimulates ERK via two pathways in epithelial cells: protein kinase C suppresses a G-protein coupled receptor-EGF receptor transactivation pathway
Dissociation of cytokine-induced phosphorylation of Bad and activation of PKB/akt: involvement of MEK upstream of Bad phosphorylation
Neurotrophic factors prevent ceramide-induced apoptosis downstream of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in PC12 cells
Activation of Akt/protein kinase B by G protein-coupled receptors. A role for alpha and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins acting through phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinasegamma.
Growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor 1 promote intestinal uptake and hepatic release of glutamine in sepsis
The exchange factor Ras-GRF2 activates Ras-dependent and Rac-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways
Differential regulation of FAK+ and PYK2/Cakbeta, two related tyrosine kinases, in rat hippocampal slices: effects of LPA, carbachol, depolarization and hyperosmolarity
Chronic nicotine treatment up-regulates human alpha3 beta2 but not alpha3 beta4 acetylcholine receptors stably transfected in human embryonic kidney cells.
Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases and c-Jun/AP-1 trans-activating activity in the regulation of protease mRNAs and the malignant phenotype in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.
Insulin-like growth factor I-mediated activation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein in PC12 cells. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated pathway.
Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor-mediated Erk activation requires calcium/calmodulin-dependent receptor endocytosis.
The cholinergic 'pitfall': acetylcholine, a universal cell molecule in biological systems, including humans
Inhibition of excessive neuronal apoptosis by the calcium antagonist amlodipine and antioxidants in cerebellar granule cells
Functional muscarinic m3 receptor expressed in gastric cancer cells stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase
Oxidative stress oppositely modulates protein tyrosine phosphorylation stimulated by muscarinic G protein-coupled and epidermal growth factor receptors
Muscarinic cholinergic receptors activate both inhibitory and stimulatory growth mechanisms in NIH3T3 cells.
Induction of cellular contractions in the human melanoma cell line SK-mel 28 after muscarinic cholinergic stimulation
Carbachol-stimulated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase in T(84) cells is mediated by intracellular Ca2+, PYK-2, and p60(src)
Effect of pertussis toxin on insulin-induced signal transduction in rat adipocytes and soleus muscles
Activation of NF-kappa B by bradykinin through a Galpha(q)- and Gbeta gamma-dependent pathway that involves phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt
The m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinase via protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor kinase
On neurodegenerative diseases, models, and treatment strategies: lessons learned and lessons forgotten a generation following the cholinergic hypothesis
Growth factors inactivate the cell death promoter BAD by phosphorylation of its BH3 domain on Ser155
Signal transduction pathways of G protein-coupled receptors and their cross-talk with receptor tyrosine kinases: lessons from bradykinin signaling
G protein-coupled receptor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation through cooperation of Galpha(q) and Galpha(i) signals.
Insulin-like growth factor-1-induced phosphorylation of the forkhead family transcription factor FKHRL1 is mediated by Akt kinase in PC12 cells
M1 muscarinic receptors block caspase activation by phosphoinositide 3-kinase- and MAPK/ERK-independent pathways
Stimulation of M3 muscarinic receptors induces phosphorylation of the Cdc42 effector activated Cdc42Hs-associated kinase-1 via a Fyn tyrosine kinase signaling pathway
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling inhibits DAF-16 DNA binding and function via 14-3-3-dependent and 14-3-3-independent pathways
Protein phosphatase 2A: a highly regulated family of serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and signalling
Roles of the forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR) phosphorylation sites in regulating 14-3-3 binding, transactivation and nuclear targetting
Nicotine protects against arachidonic-acid-induced caspase activation, cytochrome c release and apoptosis of cultured spinal cord neurons
GIPC and GAIP form a complex with TrkA: a putative link between G protein and receptor tyrosine kinase pathways
Coincident signalling between the Gi/Go-coupled delta-opioid receptor and the Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor at the level of intracellular free calcium in SH-SY5Y cells
alpha 7 nicotinic receptor transduces signals to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to block A beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity
The M1 receptor is required for muscarinic activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in murine cerebral cortical neurons
M5 muscarinic receptors are needed for slow activation of dopamine neurons and for rewarding brain stimulation
Nerve growth factor stimulation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase in PC12 cells: role of G(i/o), G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, beta-arrestin I, and endocytic processing
Effect of nicotine-treated epithelial cells on the proliferation and collagen production of gingival fibroblasts
Transient expression of wild-type or mitochondrially targeted Bcl-2 induces apoptosis, whereas transient expression of endoplasmic reticulum-targeted Bcl-2 is protective against Bax-induced cell death
A novel class of peptides with facilitating action on neuronal nicotinic receptors of rat chromaffin cells in vitro: functional and molecular dynamics studies
Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in stem and progenitor cells of the early embryonic mouse cerebral cortex
Calcium-independent activation of extracellularly regulated kinases 1 and 2 by angiotensin II in hepatic C9 cells: roles of protein kinase Cdelta, Src/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2, and epidermal growth receptor trans-activation
Nicotine and cotinine up-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor expression in endothelial cells
Muscarinic receptors in cell lines from ovarian carcinoma: negative correlation with survival of patients
p75 neurotrophin receptor is required for constitutive and NGF-induced survival signalling in PC12 cells and rat hippocampal neurones
T-Type calcium channel alpha1G and alpha1H subunits in human retinoblastoma cells and their loss after differentiation
H(2)O(2) induces upregulation of Fas and Fas ligand expression in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells: modulation by cAMP
Growth inhibition by the muscarinic M(3) acetylcholine receptor: evidence for p21(Cip1/Waf1) involvement in G(1) arrest
The Ca(2+) channel antagonists mibefradil and pimozide inhibit cell growth via different cytotoxic mechanisms
Deletion of the M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor attenuates morphine reinforcement and withdrawal but not morphine analgesia
Janus kinase 2, an early target of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated neuroprotection against Abeta-(1-42) amyloid
Involvement of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in gene expression of dopamine biosynthetic enzymes in rat brain
Association of promoter variants in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene with an inhibitory deficit found in schizophrenia
Cell-specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by multiple G protein-coupled receptor families in hippocampus
Rapid Akt activation by nicotine and a tobacco carcinogen modulates the phenotype of normal human airway epithelial cells
Muscarinic receptor activation protects cells from apoptotic effects of DNA damage, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial inhibition.
Relative levels of cytoprotection produced by analogs of choline and the role of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Insulin-like growth factor-I inhibits progesterone receptor expression in breast cancer cells via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway: progesterone receptor as a potential indicator of growth factor activity in breast cancer
Palmitic and stearic fatty acids induce caspase-dependent and -independent cell death in nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells
T cell activation in vivo targets diacylglycerol kinase alpha to the membrane: a novel mechanism for Ras attenuation
c-Src protein tyrosine kinase activity is required for muscarinic receptor-mediated DNA synthesis and neurogenesis via ERK1/2 and c-AMP-responsive element-binding protein signaling in neural precursor cells
The cholinergic hypothesis of age and Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits: recent challenges and their implications for novel drug development
Ca2+-mobilization and cell contraction after muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the chick embryo lens
Nerve growth factor signaling involves interaction between the Trk A receptor and lysophosphatidate receptor 1 systems: nuclear translocation of the lysophosphatidate receptor 1 and Trk A receptors in pheochromocytoma 12 cells
Neuroprotection by nicotine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cortical cultures involves activation of multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes
Transcription of the M1 muscarinic receptor gene in neurons and neuronal progenitors of the embryonic rat forebrain
Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect growth regulation of human mesothelioma cells: role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors involved in the regulation of neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro
Regulation of blood-brain barrier Na,K,2Cl-cotransporter through phosphorylation during in vitro stroke conditions and nicotine exposure
Elevated Rac1 activity changes the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated inhibition of proliferation to induction of cell death
Amlodipine and carvedilol prevent cytotoxicity in cortical neurons isolated from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats
Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotion and improved latent inhibition in mice mutant for the M5 muscarinic receptor gene found in the human 15q schizophrenia region
M4 muscarinic receptors regulate the dynamics of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission: relevance to the pathophysiology and treatment of related CNS pathologies
Galphaq/11 signaling induces apoptosis through two pathways involving reduction of Akt phosphorylation and activation of RhoA in HeLa cells
Novel signaling pathways mediating reciprocal control of keratinocyte migration and wound epithelialization through M3 and M4 muscarinic receptors
Activation of second messenger-dependent protein kinases induces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization in rat thyroid epithelial cells
Expression of non-neuronal acetylcholine in lymphocytes and its contribution to the regulation of immune function
The protein kinase C inhibitor Go6976 [12-(2-cyanoethyl)-6,7,12,13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5H-indolo(2,3-a)pyrrolo(3,4-c)-carbazole] potentiates agonist-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation through tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor
Administration of nicotine to adolescent rats evokes regionally selective upregulation of CNS alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Long-term exposure to nicotine, via ras pathway, induces cyclin D1 to stimulate G1 cell cycle transition
Muscarinic M3 acetylcholine receptor immunostaining in paraffin-embedded normal and neoplastic prostatic gland tissue
Activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by nicotine selectively up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in rat microglial cultures
Tumorigenicity issues of embryonic carcinoma-derived stem cells: relevance to surgical trials using NT2 and hNT neural cells
Exposure to nicotine during gestation interferes with the colonization of fetal bone marrow by hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells
Activation of MAP kinase by muscarinic cholinergic receptors induces cell proliferation and protein synthesis in human breast cancer cells
Neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells modulates kinin B2 receptor gene expression and function.
Peptide growth factors signal differentially through protein kinase C to extracellular signal-regulated kinases in neonatal cardiomyocytes
Integration of G protein signals by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cells
Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human melanoma cell line SK-Mel 28: modulation of chemotaxis
Identification and functional characterization of the muscarinic receptor M3 in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT
The sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide enhances neuronal cell survival during acute anoxic injury through AKT, BAD, PARP, and mitochondrial associated "anti-apoptotic" pathways
Desensitization of neuronal nicotinic receptors of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during short or long exposure to nicotine
Chronic treatment with amyloid beta(1-42) inhibits non-cholinergic high-affinity choline transport in NG108-15 cells through protein kinase C signaling
Nicotine induces cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in association with tumor-associated invasion and angiogenesis in gastric cancer
Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha-isoform regulates Rho, myosin phosphatase and contraction in vascular smooth muscle
HCMV-encoded G-protein-coupled receptors as constitutively active modulators of cellular signaling networks
Protein kinase Ciota promotes nicotine-induced migration and invasion of cancer cells via phosphorylation of micro- and m-calpains
Erythropoietin requires NF-kappaB and its nuclear translocation to prevent early and late apoptotic neuronal injury during beta-amyloid toxicity
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mediate oligodendrocyte progenitor survival through Src-like tyrosine kinases and PI3K/Akt pathways
Preclinical analyses of the therapeutic potential of allopregnanolone to promote neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo in transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
Intrathecal clonidine suppresses zymosan-induced peripheral leukocyte migration in a mouse air pouch model via activation of spinal muscarinic type 2 receptors and sympathoadrenal medullary activity
Mirk/Dyrk1B: a multifunctional dual-specificity kinase involved in growth arrest, differentiation, and cell survival
Nicotine induces cell proliferation by beta-arrestin-mediated activation of Src and Rb-Raf-1 pathways
Activation of dopamine D1 receptors enhances cholinergic transmission and social cognition: a parallel dialysis and behavioural study in rats
Global expression of NGF promotes sympathetic axonal growth in CNS white matter but does not alter its parallel orientation
P19 embryonal carcinoma cells as in vitro model for studying purinergic receptor expression and modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-glutamate and acetylcholine receptors during neuronal differentiation
M3 muscarinic receptor antagonists inhibit small cell lung carcinoma growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation induced by acetylcholine secretion
Mechanism of acetylcholine-induced calcium signaling during neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro
Lysophosphatidic acid modulates c-Met redistribution and hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling in human bronchial epithelial cells through PKC delta and E-cadherin
An interdisciplinary approach and characterization of neuronal cells transdifferentiated from human mesenchymal stem cells
Role of acetylcholine receptors in proliferation and differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells
Genetic variability in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and nicotine addiction: converging evidence from human and animal research
Intracellular Ca2+ regulation during neuronal differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma and mesenchymal stem cells
Hydrogen sulfide evokes neurite outgrowth and expression of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ currents in NG108-15 cells: involvement of T-type Ca2+ channels
Arecoline excites the contraction of distal colonic smooth muscle strips in rats via the M3 receptor-extracellular Ca2+ influx - Ca2+ store release pathway
Targeted delivery of proteins into the central nervous system mediated by rabies virus glycoprotein-derived peptide
High power, low-noise, and multiply resonant photodetector for interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Transcriptome analysis of the medulla tissue from cattle in response to bovine spongiform encephalopathy using digital gene expression tag profiling
Chronic treatment with fluoxetine for more than 6 weeks decreases neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult mice
α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors control cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria through kinase-mediated pathways
Long-term exposure to muscarinic agonists decreases expression of contractile proteins and responsiveness of rabbit tracheal smooth muscle cells
Regulation of M2, M3, and M4 muscarinic receptor expression in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells by carbachol
Effects of the neurotoxic thionophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos on differentiating alternative models
Muscarinic cholinergic signaling in cervical cancer cells affects cell motility via ERK1/2 signaling
Spatial and temporal expression patterns of nicotinic acetylcholine α9 and α10 subunits in the embryonic and early postnatal inner ear
Evidence for operation of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent survival pathways in human coronary artery endothelial cells
Enhanced neural progenitor/stem cells self-renewal via the interaction of stress-inducible protein 1 with the prion protein
Intracellular distribution of functional M(1) -muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells
Human adult stem cells from diverse origins: an overview from multiparametric immunophenotyping to clinical applications
4-O-methylhonokiol inhibits serious embryo anomalies caused by nicotine via modulations of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation
Extrinsic intestinal denervation modulates tumor development in the small intestine of Apc(Min/+) mice
Acetylcholine as a possible signaling molecule in embryonic stem cells: studies on survival, proliferation and death
Hippocampal chromatin-modifying enzymes are pivotal for scopolamine-induced synaptic plasticity gene expression changes and memory impairment
Effective gene delivery into human stem cells with a cell-targeting Peptide-modified bioreducible polymer
Acute and long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos induces cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons through AChE variants alteration
Protective effects of anisodamine on cigarette smoke extract-induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and tracheal contractility
Hippocampal GABAergic interneurons coexpressing alpha7-nicotinic receptors and connexin-36 are able to improve neuronal viability under oxygen-glucose deprivation
Mechanism of YB-1-mediated translational induction of GluR2 mRNA in response to neural activity through nAChR
Cyclic stretch induces human bladder smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro through muscarinic receptors
Higher sensitivity to cadmium induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: a cholinesterase dependent mechanism
Antibodies against the Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P proteins induce apoptosis in HL-1 cardiac cells
Influence of spontaneous calcium events on cell-cycle progression in embryonal carcinoma and adult stem cells
Potential Use of Nicotinic Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Deficits
Extending in silico mechanism-of-action analysis by annotating targets with pathways: application to cellular cytotoxicity readouts
Downregulation of ROCK2 through nanocomplex sensitizes the cytotoxic effect of temozolomide in U251 glioma cells
Cholinergic activation enhances retinoic acid-induced differentiation in the human NB-4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line
D-Galactose Causes Motor Coordination Impairment, and Histological and Biochemical Changes in the Cerebellum of Rats
Protection from interferon-β-induced neuronal apoptosis through stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors coupled to ERK1/2 activation
Stress-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction and Neurotransmitter Release in Alzheimer's Disease: Can Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators be Potential Therapeutic Targets?
Existence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) heteroreceptor complexes and their enhancement of neurite outgrowth in neural hippocampal cultures
A predictive in vitro model of the impact of drugs with anticholinergic properties on human neuronal and astrocytic systems
Activation of developmental nuclear fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 signaling and neurogenesis in adult brain by α7 nicotinic receptor agonist
APS8, a polymeric alkylpyridinium salt blocks α7 nAChR and induces apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma
Effects of α7 Nicotinic Receptor Activation on Cell Survival in Rat Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures
Effects of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation on the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into neural progenitor cells
APS8 Delays Tumor Growth in Mice by Inducing Apoptosis of Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Expressing High Number of α7 Nicotinic Receptors
Nicotine increases the resistance of lung cancer cells to cisplatin through enhancing Bcl-2 stability
Cholinergic microvillous cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium and effect of acetylcholine on olfactory sensory neurons and supporting cells
Combination of Chemical and Neurotrophin Stimulation Modulates Neurotransmitter Receptor Expression and Activity in Transdifferentiating Human Adipose Stromal Cells
Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation in the rat hippocampus
Mechanisms of muscular electrophysiological and mitochondrial dysfunction following exposure to malathion, an organophosphorus pesticide
Evaluation of developmental toxicity induced by anticholinesterase insecticide, diazinon in female rats
The Functional Haplotypes of CHRM3 Modulate mRNA Expression and Associate with Bladder Cancer among a Chinese Han Population in Kaohsiung City
Identification of RPL5 and RPL10 as novel diagnostic biomarkers of Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors
Ellagic acid prevents dementia through modulation of PI3-kinase-endothelial nitric oxide synthase signalling in streptozotocin-treated rats
Short-term auricular electrical stimulation rapidly elevated cortical blood flow and promoted the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 in the 2 vessel occlusion rats model
Nicotine-induced upregulation of miR-132-5p enhances cell survival in PC12 cells by targeting the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2
The α7 and β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits regulate apoptosis in the infant hippocampus, and in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
The comprehensive immunomodulation of NeurimmiRs in haemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas after acetylcholine and norepinephrine stimulation
Involvement of Acetylcholine Receptors in Cholinergic Pathway-Mediated Protection Against Autoimmune Diabetes
Acetylcholine modulates K+ and Na+ currents in human basal forebrain cholinergic neuroblasts through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.
Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Interleukin-6 Production and Immunoglobulin Class Switching in Daudi Cells
Donepezil promotes neurogenesis via Src signaling pathway in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion
Deferiprone ameliorates memory impairment in Scopolamine-treated rats: The impact of its iron-chelating effect on β-amyloid disposition.
Mitochondrial α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are displaced from complexes with VDAC1 to form complexes with Bax upon apoptosis induction.
Ethanolic extract Ocimum sanctum. Enhances cognitive ability from young adulthood to middle aged mediated by increasing choline acetyl transferase activity in rat model
The Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) and Calcium Signaling in Schizophrenia. Focus on GPCRs Activated by Neurotransmitters and Chemokines.
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