Oct 25, 2008

Chromatin regulation Tip(60)s the balance in embryonic stem cell self-renewal

Cell Cycle
Thomas G FazzioBarbara Panning

Abstract

Histone modifications affect chromatin dynamics on several levels by serving as binding sites for regulatory proteins. In many cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), a subset of genes is marked with histone modifications thought to be both activating and repressing: H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), respectively. As a result, genes bearing this "bivalent" mark are transcribed at low levels, but are primed for activation, should the cell receive the appropriate cues during differentiation. Recently, we found that the Tip60-p400 acetyltransferase and histone exchange complex is necessary to maintain normal self-renewal in mouse ESCs. While Tip60-p400 has histone acetyltransferase activity, which is generally associated with transcriptional activation, it acts predominantly as a repressor of genes expressed during differentiation. Surprisingly, in ESCs Tip60-p400 localizes to the promoters of genes marked by H3K4me3, which include both highly expressed genes and "bivalent" genes expressed at low levels. Tip60-p400 acetylates histones at these targets, including the promoters for developmental regulators it helps to silence in ESCs. This suggests that the effect of chromatin m...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Transcription Repressor/Corepressor
Transcription, Genetic
Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome
Promoter
Histone Exchange
Calcium Channel
Lysine
EP400 gene
Cell Proliferation
Cell Differentiation Process

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