Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Following Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections: An Emerging Disease

Journal of Fungi
Pakpoom Phoompoung, Methee Chayakulkeeree

Abstract

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease is being increasingly recognized, especially in countries where tuberculosis is not endemic, with an incidence rate of 3.9-16.7%. NTM lung disease has been identified as a predictor of mortality in CPA patients. The major risk factors for NTM-associated CPA include fibrocavitary NTM lung disease, the presence of pulmonary emphysema, and high-dose corticosteroid use. The onset of CPA is 1.5-7 years following the diagnosis of NTM lung disease. The diagnosis can be made using standard criteria; however, serological diagnosis using Aspergillus precipitin has demonstrated a higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with fungal culture from respiratory specimens. Treatment is challenging since rifampicin and oral triazoles should not be used concomitantly. The prognosis is poor, and the factors associated with worse prognosis are corticosteroid use and high C-reactive protein level.

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