The Effect of Sudanese Smokeless Tobacco (Toombak) using on Oral Microbiota

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Mudathir Abdelshafea Abdelkareem AbakarA. M. M. Yousif

Abstract

ABSTRACT Background: Toombak, saffa and saod are the common local name of Sudanese smokeless tobacco which used by large population in different regions in Sudan. That chemical nature of Toomback includes very high levels of carcinogenic substances, strong alkaline materials and microorganisms. The used of Toombak implying application of the highly addictive product in the mouth many times per day for long times differed from users to other. Objectives: The objective of this study was to study the effect of Toombak on the oral microbial flora (Microbiota). Materials and Methods: 100 buccal swabs were collected in this study, 50 swabs from Toombak users and 50 swabs from non Toombak users as control group. All the participants were non smokers. The swabs were cultured on Chocolate agar, Blood agar and Sabouraud agar and incubated aerobically for up to 7 days. Then colonial morphology, indirect microscopy and biochemical tests were used to identify the isolated organism. Results: Toomback shows inhibitory effect on the viridanas streptococci and the baccual swabs collected from toomback users show significant increase in number of mixed growth (P value 0.000/ likelihood ratio 43.24) and colonization of oral cavity with Bacillus s...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Genome
Nucleic Acid Sequencing
Sequencing
Mitochondria
Chromosomes
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Plasmids
Automate (invertebrate)
Plasmodium falciparum
Apicoplasts

Related Feeds

BioRxiv & MedRxiv Preprints

BioRxiv and MedRxiv are the preprint servers for biology and health sciences respectively, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Here are the latest preprint articles (which are not peer-reviewed) from BioRxiv and MedRxiv.