Sep 1, 1976

Circulating tissue antigens. III. Identification and characterization of antigens of limited and of wide body is distribution in human gall bladder bile. Presence in serum of patients with acute hepatitis

Clinical and Experimental Immunology
E Espinosa


Three antigens shared by bile and tissues (BT-1, BT-2 and BT-3) and one shared by bile and saliva (BA) were identified in human gallbladder bile by immunodiffusion. The former were detected in all bile specimens examined, whereas the latter was detected only in half. BT-1 was limited in distribution to kidney, urine and bile; whereas BT-2 and BT-3 were widely distributed mainly in liver, lung and bile. The antigens were not present in biles of other mammals tested, with the exception of BA which was also present in Rhesus monkey. All antigens were inactivated by Pronase, had relative electrophoretic mobilities of serum globulins and separated from each other in Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and ammonium sulphate fractionation. Ethanol inactivated BT-1 and precipitated the other antigens. BT-2 and BA were relatively resistant to boiling temperature and acid pH, whereas BT-1 and BT-3 were susceptible. Antigens BT-2 and BT-3 were detected in serum of patients with acute hepatitis but not of patients with other diseases or of normal controls.

  • References
  • Citations


  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.
  • References
  • Citations


  • This paper may not have been cited yet.

Mentioned in this Paper

Liver Failure, Acute
Molecular Sieve Chromatography
Immunodiffusion Measurement

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.