Cleavage and release of a soluble form of the receptor tyrosine kinase ARK in vitro and in vivo

Journal of Cellular Physiology
M CostaClaudio Basilico


The receptor tyrosine kinase ARK (also called AXL or UFO) is the murine prototype of a small family of receptors with an extracellular domain resembling cell adhesion molecules and a conserved tyrosine kinase domain. ARK is capable of homophilic binding, as well as of binding of GAS6, a secreted member of the class of vitamin K dependent proteins whose expression is up-regulated in growth-arrested cells. To gain understanding of the physiological role of ARK signaling, we have investigated the ARK forms which are expressed by cells in culture as well as by mouse organs. We found that ARK is not only expressed as a transmembrane protein, but is also cleaved in the extracellular domain to generate a soluble ARK form of about 65 kDa, which is easily detected in conditioned media of ARK expressing cells, in serum and plasma and in mouse organs. Soluble ARK is also produced by tumor cells in vivo. The function of these molecules could be that of binding GAS6, thereby inhibiting the interaction of this ligand with its cell-associated receptor, or they could be involved in binding to ARK itself.


Oct 26, 2001·European Journal of Cancer : Official Journal for European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) [and] European Association for Cancer Research (EACR)·A WimmelM Schuermann
Jun 17, 2004·Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension·Motoko Yanagita
Oct 18, 2005·Molecular and Cellular Biology·Vadim BudagianSilvia Bulfone-Paus
May 3, 2013·PloS One·Russell S TaichmanKenneth J Pienta
Aug 5, 2008·Journal of Neurochemistry·Imola WilhelmIstván A Krizbai
May 5, 2011·Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology·Angela PierceM E Wierman
Jan 17, 2015·Annual Review of Immunology·Carla V RothlinSourav Ghosh
Jul 9, 2016·Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism·Lu-Sha TongJohn H Zhang
May 6, 2003·Circulation Research·Georgina CollettAnn E Canfield
Nov 14, 2018·Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery·Nasser AlhajjPaolo Colombo
Sep 10, 2014·Nature Immunology·Anna ZagórskaGreg Lemke
Jan 31, 2014·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·S Salian-MehtaM E Wierman
May 7, 2020·Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS·Yunxiang ZhouAnwen Shao
Dec 30, 2014·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Ah-Lai LawEmeline F Nandrot
Dec 18, 2004·Journal of Cellular Physiology·Pier Paolo SainaghiGian Carlo Avanzi
Aug 7, 2009·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Sara ScuteraMirella Giovarelli
Oct 27, 2014·Oncotarget·Haley Axelrod, Kenneth J Pienta


Sep 1, 1992·Neuron·J Schlessinger, A Ullrich
Dec 1, 1991·Molecular and Cellular Biology·M PratP Comoglio
Jun 1, 1990·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·D TalaricoClaudio Basilico
Jan 1, 1988·Annual Review of Immunology·A F Williams, A N Barclay
Jul 1, 1985·Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology·S I Ymer, A C Herington
Feb 1, 1995·Molecular and Cellular Biology·Paola BellostaClaudio Basilico
Mar 16, 1995·International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer·R J CravenW G Cance
Sep 13, 1994·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·A HannekenA Baird
Jan 1, 1993·Annual Review of Biochemistry·J Massagué, A Pandiella

Related Concepts

Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Post-Translational Protein Processing
Hormone Receptors, Cell Surface
AXL protein, human
PC12 Cells
Paracrine Protein Factors
3T3 Cells
Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Oncogene Proteins

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

HLA Genetic Variation

HLA genetic variation has been found to confer risk for a wide variety of diseases. Identifying these associations and understanding their molecular mechanisms is ongoing and holds promise for the development of therapeutics. Find the latest research on HLA genetic variation here.

Super-resolution Microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy is the term commonly given to fluorescence microscopy techniques with resolutions that are not limited by the diffraction of light. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to super-resolution microscopy.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.

Brain Lower Grade Glioma

Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.

CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.