This review article introduces the significance of testing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in clinical samples and summarizes important features of some of the technologies. Compared to other human diseases such as cancer, studies on VOC analysis in cases of infectious diseases are limited. Here, we have described results of studies which have used some of the appropriate technologies to evaluate VOC biomarkers and biomarker profiles associated with infections. The publications reviewed include important infections of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and nasal cavity. The results highlight the use of VOC biomarker profiles resulting from certain infectious diseases in discriminating between infected and healthy subjects. Infection-related VOC profiles measured in exhaled breath as well as from headspaces of feces or urine samples are a source of information with respect to disease detection. The volatiles emitted in clinical matrices may on the one hand represent metabolites of the infecting pathogen or on the other hand reflect pathogen-induced host responses or, indeed, a combination of both. Because exhaled-breath samples are easy to collect and online instruments are commercially available,...Continue Reading
Head-space gas liquid chromatography for rapid detection of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in urine
Volatile products from acetylcholine as markers in the rapid urine test using head-space gas-liquid chromatography
Headspace analysis of volatile metabolites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related species by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Head-space gas-liquid chromatography for the rapid laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infections caused by enterobacteria
Measurement of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as collected in evacuated electropolished canisters
Diagnosis of bacteriuria by detection of volatile organic compounds in urine using an automated headspace analyzer with multiple conducting polymer sensors
Identifying bacteria in human urine: current practice and the potential for rapid, near-patient diagnosis by sensing volatile organic compounds
Diagnosis of pneumonia with an electronic nose: correlation of vapor signature with chest computed tomography scan findings
Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in vitro and in situ using an electronic nose in combination with a neural network system
Review article: 13C-urea breath test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection -- a critical review
Detection of volatile compounds emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry
ATS/ERS recommendations for standardized procedures for the online and offline measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide and nasal nitric oxide, 2005
Species-specific bacteria identification using differential mobility spectrometry and bioinformatics pattern recognition
Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by the Helicobacter pylori reference strain NCTC 11637 in vitro
Prospects for clinical application of electronic-nose technology to early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture and sputum
The expanding role of NADPH oxidases in health and disease: no longer just agents of death and destruction
Investigation into the production of 2-Pentylfuran by Aspergillus fumigatus and other respiratory pathogens in vitro and human breath samples
Hydrogen cyanide as a biomarker for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the breath of children with cystic fibrosis
Device-independent, real-time identification of bacterial pathogens with a metal oxide-based olfactory sensor
A pilot study of faecal volatile organic compounds in faeces from cholera patients in Bangladesh to determine their utility in disease diagnosis
Background levels of hydrogen cyanide in human breath measured by infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy
Volatile compounds characteristic of sinus-related bacteria and infected sinus mucus: analysis by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Bacteriological analysis of induced sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the clinical practice of a general tertiary hospital
Novel noninvasive identification of biomarkers by analytical profiling of chronic wounds using volatile organic compounds
2-Aminoacetophenone as a potential breath biomarker for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the cystic fibrosis lung
Determination of volatile organic compounds in human breath for Helicobacter pylori detection by SPME-GC/MS
Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with multi-capillary columns for metabolic profiling of human breath
Volatile biomarkers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis and noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis
Chronic intestinal Mycobacteria infection: discrimination via VOC analysis in exhaled breath and headspace of feces using differential ion mobility spectrometry
Potential sources of 2-aminoacetophenone to confound the Pseudomonas aeruginosa breath test, including analysis of a food challenge study
Quantification of methyl thiocyanate in the headspace of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis patients by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry
Determining the limits and confounders for the 2-pentyl furan breath test by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
Ion mobility spectrometry for microbial volatile organic compounds: a new identification tool for human pathogenic bacteria
Bacterial volatile discovery using solid phase microextraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry
A correlation of fecal volatiles and steroid hormone profiles with behavioral expression during estrous cycle of goat, Capra hircus
Designing breathalyser technology for the developing world: how a single breath can fight the double disease burden
Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath as noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis
Volatile organic compounds generated by cultures of bacteria and viruses associated with respiratory infections
Highly Selective Sensing of CO, C6H6, and C7H8 Gases by Catalytic Functionalization with Metal Nanoparticles
Realization of ppb-Scale Toluene-Sensing Abilities with Pt-Functionalized SnO2-ZnO Core-Shell Nanowires
Antifungal activity of volatile compounds-producing Pseudomonas P2 strain against Rhizoctonia solani
Self-Healable Sensors Based Nanoparticles for Detecting Physiological Markers via Skin and Breath: Toward Disease Prevention via Wearable Devices
(1)H NMR To Explore the Metabolome of Exhaled Breath Condensate in α1-Antitrypsin Deficient Patients: A Pilot Study
Expanding the Klebsiella pneumoniae volatile metabolome using advanced analytical instrumentation for the detection of novel metabolites
Smelling the Diagnosis: The Electronic Nose as Diagnostic Tool in Inflammatory Arthritis. A Case-Reference Study
Clinical implications of Pseudomonas aeruginosa location in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis
Elucidating the biosynthetic pathways of volatile organic compounds in Mycobacterium tuberculosis through a computational approach
Blood, sweat, and tears: developing clinically relevant protein biosensors for integrated body fluid analysis
Investigation of Exhaled Breath Samples from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and an Exhaled Breath Sensor System
Strategies for the identification of disease-related patterns of volatile organic compounds: prediction of paratuberculosis in an animal model using random forests
The potential role of exhaled breath analysis in the diagnostic process of pneumonia-a systematic review
Breath volatile organic compounds of lung transplant recipients with and without chronic lung allograft dysfunction
Volatile fingerprinting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and respiratory syncytial virus infection in an in vitro cystic fibrosis co-infection model
GC-MS application in determination of volatile profiles emitted by infected and uninfected human tissue
Non-Invasive Detection of Anastomotic Leakage Following Esophageal and Pancreatic Surgery by Urinary Analysis
Targeted breath analysis: exogenous volatile organic compounds (EVOC) as metabolic pathway-specific probes
Application of Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in a Nutritional Intervention Study: Differential Responses during Five Hours Following Consumption of a High- and a Low-Fat Dairy Drink
The smell of longevity: a combination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) can discriminate centenarians and their offspring from age-matched subjects and young controls
Fabrication of SnO2 Composite Nanofiber-Based Gas Sensor using the Electrospinning Method for Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Detection
Differentiation of pulmonary bacterial pathogens in cystic fibrosis by volatile metabolites emitted by their in vitro cultures: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and the Burkholderia cepacia complex
Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus mono- and co-cultures based on volatile biomarker combinations
Detection of creatinine in exhaled breath of humans with chronic kidney disease by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
The use of a gas chromatography-sensor system combined with advanced statistical methods, towards the diagnosis of urological malignancies
eNose technology can detect and classify human pathogenic molds in vitro: a proof-of-concept study of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae
Nanomaterial-Enabled Flexible and Stretchable Sensing Systems: Processing, Integration, and Applications
Advances in diagnosis of Tuberculosis: an update into molecular diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
A volatolomic approach using cerumen as biofluid to diagnose bovine intoxication by Stryphnodendron rotundifoliumb
Screening of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds for Detection of Disease in Cattle: Development of Lab-scale Method
Sniffing Out Urinary Tract Infection-Diagnosis Based on Volatile Organic Compounds and Smell Profile
In vitro detection of common rhinosinusitis bacteria by the eNose utilising differential mobility spectrometry
Validation of biofilm formation on human skin wound models and demonstration of clinically translatable bacteria-specific volatile signatures
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Quantification of Metabolites in Stool Using 13 C Labelled Compounds
Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds Precedes Pulmonary Injury in a Swine Pulmonary Oxygen Toxicity Model
Nanoporous Gold as a VOC Sensor, Based on Nanoscale Electrical Phenomena and Convolutional Neural Networks
Detection of high-risk carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae isolates using volatile molecular profiles
Comparison of Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction and Solid Phase Microextraction of Volatile and Semi-Volatile Metabolite Profile of Staphylococcus Aureus
Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Profiles are Not Influenced by Gestational Age and Mode of Delivery: A Longitudinal Multicenter Cohort Study
Host and Pathogen Communication in the Respiratory Tract: Mechanisms and Models of a Complex Signaling Microenvironment
An Optimistic Vision of Future: Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections by Sensing Their Associated Volatile Organic Compounds
Electrical stimulation disrupts biofilms in a human wound model and reveals the potential for monitoring treatment response with volatile biomarkers
Breath Biopsy and Discovery of Exclusive Volatile Organic Compounds for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases.
Ultrasensitive Label-Free Detection of Unamplified Multidrug-Resistance Bacteria Genes with a Bimodal Waveguide Interferometric Biosensor
Neutral Desorption Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis Sputum for Non-Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma Detection.
Feasibility of integrating canine olfaction with chemical and microbial profiling of urine to detect lethal prostate cancer.
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