Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance that begins or is first recognized during pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM is highly variable, depending on the population studied, and reflects the underlying pattern of diabetes in the population. GDM manifests by the second half of pregnancy and disappears following delivery in most cases, but is associated with the risk of subsequent diabetes development. Normal pregnancy induces carbohydrate intolerance to favor the availability of nutrients for the fetus, which is compensated by increased insulin secretion from the maternal pancreas. Pregnancy shares similarities with adiposity in metabolism to save energy, and both conditions favor the development of insulin resistance (IR) and low-grade inflammation. A highly complicated network of modified regulatory mechanisms may primarily affect carbohydrate metabolism by promoting autoimmune reactions to pancreatic β cells and affecting insulin function. As a result, diabetes development during pregnancy is facilitated. Depending on a pregnant woman's genetic susceptibility to diabetes, autoimmune mechanisms or IR are fundamental to the development autoimmune or non-autoimmune GDM, respectively. Pregnancy ma...Continue Reading
Thyroid function and autoimmune manifestations in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus during and after pregnancy
Growth hormone-binding protein in plasma is inversely correlated to placental lactogen and augmented with increasing body mass index in healthy pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus
Perinatal cellular ion metabolism: 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of intracellular free magnesium and pH in maternal and cord blood erythrocytes
Prediction of type 1 diabetes postpartum in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus by combined islet cell autoantibody screening: a prospective multicenter study
High frequency of antithyroid autoantibodies in pregnant women at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus
Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance
Postpartum metabolism and autoantibody markers in women with gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in early pregnancy
Effects of ethnicity on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and beta cell function in 223 women with an abnormal glucose challenge test during pregnancy
Growth promoting effects of human placental lactogen during early organogenesis: a link to insulin-like growth factors
Resistin / Fizz3 expression in relation to obesity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma action in humans
HLA-G protein up-regulation in primary cutaneous lymphomas is associated with interleukin-10 expression in large cell T-cell lymphomas and indolent B-cell lymphomas.
Mechanism by which fatty acids inhibit insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in muscle.
Low frequency of autoantibodies to islet cell, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and second-islet antigen in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus: a follow-up study
Different HLA-DR-DQ and MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) genotypes in autoimmune and nonautoimmune gestational diabetes in a Swedish population
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates expression of chemokines and cytokines in pancreatic islets: implications for prevention of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice
Is latent autoimmune diabetes in adults distinct from type 1 diabetes or just type 1 diabetes at an older age?
Gestational diabetes identifies women at risk for permanent type 1 and type 2 diabetes in fertile age: predictive role of autoantibodies
Thyroid function abnormalities and antithyroid antibody prevalence in pregnant women at high risk for gestational diabetes mellitus
New insights into the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus: possible role of human leukocyte antigen-G
Fibrinolytic dysfunction after gestation is associated to components of insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes in latino women with previous gestational diabetes
The prevalence of GAD antibodies in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus and their clinical characteristics during and after pregnancy
Testing for type 1 diabetes autoantibodies in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): is it clinically useful?
Risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Interleukin-7, T helper 1, and regulatory T-cell activity-related cytokines are increased during the second trimester of healthy pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women
Response to Comment on Jackson et al. Insulitis in Autoantibody-Positive Pancreatic Donor With History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 2017;40:723-725
Pregnancy rates and perinatal outcomes in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: data from the Korean national health claims database.
Autoimmune diseases occur as a result of an attack by the immune system on the body’s own tissues resulting in damage and dysfunction. There are different types of autoimmune diseases, in which there is a complex and unknown interaction between genetics and the environment. Discover the latest research on autoimmune diseases here.
Autoimmune Diabetes & Tolerance
Patients with type I diabetes lack insulin-producing beta cells due to the loss of immunological tolerance and autoimmune disease. Discover the latest research on targeting tolerance to prevent diabetes.