Clinically immune hosts as a refuge for drug-sensitive malaria parasites

Malaria Journal
Eili Y KleinRamanan Laxminarayan

Abstract

Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum that confer resistance to first-line antimalarial drugs have spread throughout the world from a few independent foci, all located in areas that were likely characterized by low or unstable malaria transmission. One of the striking differences between areas of low or unstable malaria transmission and hyperendemic areas is the difference in the size of the population of immune individuals. However, epidemiological models of malaria transmission have generally ignored the role of immune individuals in transmission, assuming that they do not affect the fitness of the parasite. This model reconsiders the role of immunity in the dynamics of malaria transmission and its impact on the evolution of antimalarial drug resistance under the assumption that immune individuals are infectious. The model is constructed as a two-stage susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model of malaria transmission that assumes that individuals build up clinical immunity over a period of years. This immunity reduces the frequency and severity of clinical symptoms, and thus their use of drugs. It also reduces an individual's level of infectiousness, but does not impact the likelihood of becoming infected. Simulations found t...Continue Reading

References

Nov 3, 2009·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Richard T Eastman, David A Fidock
Sep 11, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Maciej F BoniRamanan Laxminarayan
Oct 15, 2011·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Giacomo M PaganottiDavid Modiano
Nov 12, 2010·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·David AlonsoMercedes Pascual
Jul 13, 2012·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Eili Y KleinSimon Levin
Nov 4, 2008·Malaria Journal·Wirichada PongtavornpinyoNicholas J White
Sep 9, 2010·PLoS Computational Biology·Karina LaneriMercedes Pascual
Sep 16, 2009·Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management·Luiz Ma CarmargoCélia Rs Garcia
Feb 25, 2014·Parasitology Research·Rashad Abdul-GhaniAhmed A Azazy
Oct 28, 2014·Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering : MBE·Ruijun Zhao, Jemal Mohammed-Awel
Oct 17, 2015·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Luicer A IngasiaEdwin Kamau
Feb 12, 2013·International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents·Eili Y Klein
Oct 30, 2009·Trends in Parasitology·Ananias A EscalanteYuseob Kim
Feb 1, 2009·Evolutionary Applications·Andrew F Read, Silvie Huijben
Jul 3, 2013·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Manu VanaerschotJean-Claude Dujardin
May 23, 2015·Journal of the Royal Society, Interface·Eili Y KleinRamanan Laxminarayan
Jun 3, 2016·Malaria Journal·Quique BassatKamal Hamed
Dec 16, 2016·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Yochay EshelSeth J Salpeter
May 16, 2019·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·M Andreína PachecoAnanias A Escalante
Sep 22, 2017·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Ricardo AtaídeFreya J I Fowkes
Aug 9, 2018·Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health·Silvie HuijbenAndrew F Read
Jun 20, 2020·PLoS Computational Biology·Mario J C Ayala, Daniel A M Villela
Aug 22, 2018·PLoS Biology·Mary BushmanJacobus C de Roode
Jul 26, 2019·Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine·Titus Okello OrwaLivingstone Serwadda Luboobi

Citations

Jul 1, 1992·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·A K GithekoF H Collins
Jan 22, 1997·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·C Dye, B G Williams
Oct 29, 1997·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S BonhoefferB R Levin
Mar 14, 1998·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Robert W SnowK Marsh
Aug 1, 1997·Parasitology·Ian M Hastings
Aug 18, 2001·Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association·B Fajardo
Aug 23, 2001·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·T E Wellems, C V Plowe
Sep 17, 2002·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Joseph F CorteseC V Plowe
Mar 19, 2003·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Nicholas J White, Wirichada Pongtavornpinyo
Jul 2, 2003·Molecular Biology and Evolution·Shalini NairTim J Anderson
Sep 27, 2003·Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology·J K BairdW Kalalo
Jul 1, 1952·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·I A McGREGOR, D A SMITH
Jun 8, 2004·Malaria Journal·David L Smith, F Ellis McKenzie
Nov 10, 2004·Drug Resistance Updates : Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy·Miriam K Laufer, C V Plowe
Dec 21, 2004·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Simon I HayRobert W Snow
Mar 24, 2005·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Hugh ReyburnEleanor M Riley
Jun 9, 2005·Drug Resistance Updates : Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy·Ian M Hastings, Martin J Donnelly
Nov 10, 2006·Drug Resistance Updates : Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy·Nicholas J White
Nov 10, 2006·Drug Resistance Updates : Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy·C V PloweO K Doumbo
Sep 27, 2007·Malaria Journal·David L SmithSimon I Hay

Related Concepts

Antimalarial [EPC]
In Silico
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Gametocyte form of protozoa
Malaria
Malaria Vaccines
Sporozoites
RIKEN WT - zebrafish
Mutant
Epidemiology

Related Feeds

Antimalarial Agents

Antimalarial agents, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria. Discover the latest research on antimalarial agents here.

Antimalarial Agents (ASM)

Antimalarial agents, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria. Discover the latest research on antimalarial agents here.