CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia

PloS One
Frida Sidik, Catherine E Lovelock

Abstract

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

References

Jul 9, 2011·PloS One·Catherine E LovelockIlka C Feller
Aug 1, 2012·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Juha SiikamäkiSunny L Jardine

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Citations

Apr 2, 2017·The Science of the Total Environment·Séraphine GrellierCyril Marchand
Sep 7, 2019·Nature Communications·Peter I MacreadieCarlos M Duarte
Oct 14, 2017·Chonnam Medical Journal·Sung Yeul YangYoung Do Jung
Apr 1, 2019·Environmental Monitoring and Assessment·P GnanamoorthyA Karipot
Aug 29, 2019·Global Change Biology·Sigit D SasmitoLindsay B Hutley
Dec 5, 2019·Scientific Reports·Angie ElwinJoanna M Clark
Nov 16, 2020·The Science of the Total Environment·Clint CameronCatherine E Lovelock
Jul 14, 2021·Environmental Research·Mauricio Santos-AndradeLuciana A da Silva

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