Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving health crisis caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is a novel disease entity and we are in a learning phase with regards to the pathogenesis, disease manifestations, and therapeutics. In addition to the primary lung injury, many patients especially the ones with moderate to severe COVID-19 display evidence of endothelial damage, complement activation, which leads to a pro-coagulable state. While there are still missing links in our understanding, the interplay of endothelium, complement system activation, and immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a surprisingly major factor in COVID-19 pathogenesis. One could envision COVID-19 becoming a novel hematological syndrome. This review is to discuss the available literature with regards to the involvement of the complement system, and coagulation cascade and their interaction with endothelium.
Blood, and not urine, BK viral load predicts renal outcome in children with hemorrhagic cystitis following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Diagnostic and risk criteria for HSCT-associated thrombotic microangiopathy: a study in children and young adults.
Toll-Like Receptor 3 Signaling via TRIF Contributes to a Protective Innate Immune Response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.
More than complementing Tolls: complement-Toll-like receptor synergy and crosstalk in innate immunity and inflammation
Transplant-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy in Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: A Practical Approach to Diagnosis and Management
Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study
Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China.
Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study.
Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection-a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia.
Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: A report of five cases.
Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Engineered Human Tissues Using Clinical-Grade Soluble Human ACE2.
Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as an early predictor of severe respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia
High risk of thrombosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study
Study of chondroitin sulfate E oligosaccharide as a promising complement C5 inhibitor for osteoarthritis alleviation.
Estimation of Admission D-dimer Cut-off Value to Predict Venous Thrombotic Events in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: Analysis of the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry.
COVID-Pain: Acute and Late-Onset Painful Clinical Manifestations in COVID-19 - Molecular Mechanisms and Research Perspectives.
The role of endotheliitis in COVID-19: Real-world experience of 11 190 patients and literature review for a pathophysiological map to clinical categorisation.
Clinical Trials Mentioned
Blood Clotting Disorders
Thrombophilia includes conditions with increased tendency for excessive blood clotting. Blood clotting occurs when the body has insufficient amounts of specialized proteins that make blood clot and stop bleeding. Here is the latest research on blood clotting disorders.