Coagulopathy, endothelial dysfunction, thrombotic microangiopathy and complement activation: potential role of complement system inhibition in COVID-19.

Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Xin WangJan Cerny


Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving health crisis caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is a novel disease entity and we are in a learning phase with regards to the pathogenesis, disease manifestations, and therapeutics. In addition to the primary lung injury, many patients especially the ones with moderate to severe COVID-19 display evidence of endothelial damage, complement activation, which leads to a pro-coagulable state. While there are still missing links in our understanding, the interplay of endothelium, complement system activation, and immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a surprisingly major factor in COVID-19 pathogenesis. One could envision COVID-19 becoming a novel hematological syndrome. This review is to discuss the available literature with regards to the involvement of the complement system, and coagulation cascade and their interaction with endothelium.


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